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Joints/Articulations

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Joints/Articulations

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  1. Joints/Articulations • Joints can be classified two ways • functional and structural • Functional (freedom of movement) • diarthrosis (freely movable), amphiarthrosis (slightly movable), synarthrosis (little or no movement) • Structural (how adjacent bones are joined) • fibrous, cartilaginous, bony and synovial joints

  2. Joint Classification

  3. Cartilage • Specialized CT • Cells (___________________) & Extracellular Matrix • Matrix rich in chondroitin sulfate and collagen • Avascular • Perichondrium • Appositional & Interstitial Growth • 3 Types • Hyaline cart, Elastic cart, & Fibrocartilage

  4. Cartilage Types

  5. Synovial (Diarthosis) Joint • Joint in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity • Most are freely movable

  6. Anatomy of Synovial Joints • Articular capsule • fibrous capsule w/ synovial membrane • continuous with periosteum • Synovial fluid • viscous slippery fluid; albumin & hyaluronic acid • Articular cartilage • Meniscus • ______________ - jaw, wrist, kneeand sternoclavicular joints • Tendons • Ligaments

  7. What are Tendon Sheaths and Bursae? • Bursa is saclike extension of joint capsule that extends between nearby structures allowing them to slide more easily past each other • Tendon sheaths are elongated cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane & wrapped around a tendon

  8. The Humeroscapular Joint • Shoulder is most freely movable joint in the body • shallow glenoid cavity • Supported by ligaments & tendons • 4 tendons = rotator cuff • subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus & teres minor • Bursae associated with shoulder joint

  9. Check out the Shoulder Bursa

  10. Knee Joint – most complex joint

  11. Knee Joint – 4 ligaments to know • Two external ligaments are the medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) collateral ligaments • Anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments are internal and prevent sliding of bones past each other • Common knee injury – lateral blow, tears the anterior cruciate, medial collateral ligament & medial meniscus

  12. Intervertebral Discs

  13. Joint Problems • Arthritis is a broad term for pain & inflammation • Osteoarthritis • cartilage softens & degenerates, crepitus, bone spurs • Rheumatoid arthritis - _____________________ • antibodies attack synovial mb, cartilage degrades, bones ossify • steroids & aspirin control inflammation • Gout is a metabolic disorder • Bunion