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Non-surgical castration in male dogs Possibility, availability and humanity . Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan DVM ( Hon s ), MS, MSc , PhD Department of Obstetrics Gynaecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences Chulalongkorn University. Introduction. Dr. Patricia N Olson.

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Non surgical castration in male dogs possibility availability and humanity l.jpg

Non-surgical castration in male dogsPossibility, availability and humanity


DVM (Hons), MS, MSc, PhD

Department of Obstetrics Gynaecology and Reproduction,

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences

Chulalongkorn University

Introduction l.jpg

Dr. Patricia N Olson

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  • 1970’s First awakening to pet over population at animal care & control facilities

  • “ … hundreds of dogs seems to have been euthanized due to some horrific diseases that was not one we have been taught about in veterinary school !” and “most of them are young and look healthy”.

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  • “ How would the veterinary community respond to a disease that resulted in the death of between 10-25% of all dogs and cats each year? ” a vet student asked.

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  • In USA, over half of all households own a dog or cat (1:3 in UK,1:4 in BKK)

  • The human society of the United Stated estimated

    • 8-10 millions dogs and cats enter shelters each year

    • 4.5 millions of them are euthanized

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  • How many stray dogs in Mexico city?

  • 1962: 460,000 dogs

  • 1974: 900,000 dogs

  • 2006: 3,000,000 dogs

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  • How many stray dogs in Bangkok?

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  • In some countries, such as Sweden and Norway, pet overpopulation is not a problem and neutering pets is UNCOMMON.

  • Pet owners: responsibilities > rights

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Pet overpopulation

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Pet overpopulation

  • Social problem

  • Hygiene problem

  • Health problem: zoonosis

  • Texas (1977): stray dogs can produce 94,950 gallons of urine and 38.6 tons of feces per day.

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Control of pet overpopulation

  • The complexity of pet overpopulation

  • Human-animal bond

  • Pet owner responsibility

  • Animal sterilization/neutering

  • Non purpose-bred dogs must be neutered!

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  • Neuter (Latin) = Neither (neither masculine or feminine)

    • adjective = The German word for 'book', 'das Buch', is neuter.

    • verb = Has your dog been neutered?

  • Neutering is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. It is the most drastic surgical procedure with sterilizing purposes. (Wikipedia)

  • Sterilizing

  • (sterilize = to perform a medical operation on someone in order to make them unable to have children)

  • Female; spaying (removal of the ovaries)

    • ovariectomy / ovariohysterectomyOVH

  • Male; neutering, castration (removal of the testicles)

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Surgical VSNon-surgical

(Permanent VS temporary)

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Surgical Castration

  • Traditional neutering of male dogs

  • Surgical removal of the testicles of a male animal or human

  • Removing or inhibiting the function or development of the testes



Dog testicles

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Surgical Castration




Loss of testosterone-

dependent characteristics

libido, roaming, urine spraying, aggression, etc.

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  • Cooper (1930) : first experimental vasectomy on a dog

  • Vasectomy & Castration

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Surgical Castration

  • Not all owners prefers to have their pets surgically sterilized.

  • In Brazil (Soto et al., 2005)

    • 56.5% of owners (adopted shelter dogs) against surgical sterilization

      • Compassion (58.1%)

      • Unnecessary procedure (11.4%)

      • Cost (9.5%)

      • Behavioral change (4.8%)

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Surgical Castration

  • In Thailand (Swangchan-uthai et al., 2005)

    • 38.3% against contraception in dogs and/or cats (170/446)

      • Breeding purpose

      • Able to confine male dogs

      • Not necessary to have males neutered

      • Behavioral and physical change, i.e. obesity

      • Unsafe procedure

      • กลัวว่าตัวเองหรือแฟนจะเป็นหมัน ... บาป !!!

    • 61.7% prefer to have their pets neutered (276/446)

      • 13.7% males, 39.8% females, 46.5% both

      • 72.5% orchiectomy, 19.8% vasectomy, 7.7% reversible hormone implant

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Non-Surgical Castration

  • No scalpel castration

  • Chemical castration

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Non-Surgical Castration

  • Hormonal treatment

  • Progestogens, Androgens, GnRH analogues (agonist/antagonist)

  • Intratesticular/intraepididymal injection

  • Immunocontraception

  • Ultrasound testicular ablation

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Hormonal treatment

  • Steroid hormone (Progestogens, Androgens)

  • Non-steroid hormone (GnRH analogues)




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Hormonal treatment

Exogenous hormone

Down regulation

Temporary suppression of fertility

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Hormonal treatment

  • Steroid Hormone

  • In early 1930, isolated and determined structure of steriods

  • In 1937, reported progesterone inhibits ovulation in rabbits

  • No new products for control of reproduction in the dog and cat have been introduced during the last two decades, other than revised formulations and new brands of progestogens.

  • Non-steroid Hormone

  • GnRH agonist

    • Suprelorin (Deslorelin, Virbac)

    • Gonazon implant (Nafarelin, Intervet)

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  • Clinical use in the bitch

  • Control of oestrus (suppression/prevention)

  • Pseudopregnancy

  • Hypoluteoidism

  • Clinical use in the dog

  • Antisocial behaviour

  • Epilepsy

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

  • Contraception (+/-)

  • Circum-anal adenoma

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Progestogen: female

Prevention of anoestrus


Perlutex2.5-3 mg/kg at 5 mth interval

Promone-E50 mg/bitch at 6 mth interval


Covinan10-33 mg/kg

- early proestrus

- a series at 3, 4 and 5 mth intervals

Side effects : type of hormone, dose, duration of repeated treatment, treatment regimen, stage of oestrus cycle and age of the animal

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Progestogen: female

  • Side effect

  • Selman et al., 1994

  • glucose intolerance

  • diabetes mellitus

  • mammary tumors (50%) in treated OVH-bitches

  • Use with Cautions

  • Type of hormone

  • Route of administration

  • Dosage

  • Duration of repeated treatment

  • Stage of the cycle at initiation of the treatment

  • Age of the animal

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Progestogen: male




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Progestogen: male

  • England , 1997

No change in plasma LH concentration was detected as seen in females !!!

The male dog appears to differ in the sensitivity of hypothalamo-pituitary response to progestogen feedback

Megestrol acetate

MPA; medroxyprogesterone acetate

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Progestogen: male

  • Not recommended for contraception in the male dog

  • 1. ineffective

  • 2. adverse effects

  • Selman et al., 1994

  • glucose intolerance

  • diabetes mellitus

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GnRH analogues

  • Agonists

    • Suprelorin (Deslorelin, Virbac)

    • Gonazon implant (Nafarelin, Intervet)

  • Antagonists

    • Acyline (Merrion Pharmaceuticals)

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Deslorelin implant


Anterior pituitary

Ovary, Testis



Oestrogen Testosterone

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Deslorelin implant

15 d pre-implant


15 d post-implant

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Deslorelin implant

  • Deslorelin

  • Suprelorin 4.7 mg implant for dogs has been licensed in EU.

  • Indication:

  • For the induction of infertility in healthy, non-castrated, sexually mature male dogs

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Deslorelin implant


50% in 3rd week

70% in 9th week

(Barsanti and Finco, 1995)


40% in 16th week

(Sirinarumitr et al., 2001)


40% in 4th week

(Ponglowhapan et al., 2010)

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Deslorelin implant


Golden retriever

7 years old

Urination difficulty


Before and

14-day post treatment of Deslorelin implant

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Deslorelin implant

Prostatic volume

[(L x W xD)/2.6] + 1.8

(Kamolpatana et al., 2000)

Before = 42.0 cm3

14-d after = 38.5 cm3

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Intratesticular injection

  • In 1953, Freund et al. Aspermatogenesis in the guinea pig induced by the testicular tissue and adjuvants. J Exp Med. 97:711-26.

    • Injection of sclerozing/necrotizing agents into the testes to induce aspermatogenicorchitis and tissue sclerosis resulting in infertility

Local inflammatory response

Autoimmone response

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Different Sites of injection

Vas deferen injection

Intraepididymal injection

Intratesticular injection

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Intratesticular injection

  • Sclerosing agents

    • Zinc gluconate (Levy et al., 2008)

    • 20% hypertonic saline (Emir et al., 2008)

    • Glycerol (Immegart et al., 2000)

    • 1.5% chlorhexidinegluconate in 50% DMSO (Pineda et al., 1977)

    • Calcium chloride (Jana and Samanta, 2007)

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Intratesticular injection

Zinc-based solution

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  • FDA approved in 2003

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  • Zinc gluconate neutralized by arginine

  • Recommendations

  • Labeled for chemical castration via intratesticular injection in the male dog

  • Age 3-10 months (puppy)

  • Predetermined amount of zinc solution based on scrotal width into each testis

  • Sedation is recommended

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Neutersol injection

Atrophy of the testis, epididymis,

seminiferous tubles and prostate gland

Scar tissue formation

Prevention of sperm movement from seminiferous to epididymis

3-10 mth old puppies: 99.6% success (223/224)

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Spermatocyte necrosis

Giant cell

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Surgical castration vsIntratesticular injection

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Surgical castration vsIntratesticular injection

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Surgical castration vsIntratesticular injection

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Intratesticular injection

  • Recommendations

  • Information

  • Family dog / stray dog

  • Large scale control population

  • Skill

  • Animal identification

  • National policy

Non-surgical castration in male dogsPossibility, availability and humanity