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Chapter 6. Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. Methods of Fertility Control. Fertility - ability to reproduce Conception - fertilization of an ovum by a sperm Contraception - prevention of conception Condom - latex cover for penis to catch sperm upon ejaculation.

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Chapter 6


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    1. Chapter 6 Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Childbirth

    2. Methods of Fertility Control • Fertility - ability to reproduce • Conception - fertilization of an ovum by a sperm • Contraception - prevention of conception • Condom - latex cover for penis to catch sperm upon ejaculation

    3. Methods of Fertility Control • Contraception effectiveness rate - % of women who become pregnant while correctly using a method contraception • Oral Contraception -” the pill” - prevents ovulation / regulating hormones

    4. Methods of Fertility Control • Morning-after pill - taken within three days after intercourse • Spermicides - kills sperm • Female Condom - single- use polyurethane sheath • Diaphragm - latex device to prevent sperm access to uterus

    5. Methods of Fertility Control • Intrauterine devise (IUD) - T shaped device implanted into uterus • Withdrawal - removing the penis before ejaculation • Depo-Provera - injectable form of BC lasts three months

    6. Methods of Fertility Control • Norplant - 6 silicon capsules surgically inserted under the skin of women’s upper arm • Fertility awareness methods - natural methods…… examples • Cervical mucus method - based on specific changes to cervical mucus • Body temp. method - monitor body temperature for signals of ovulation

    7. Methods of Fertility Control • Calendar Methods - mapping the woman’s menstrual cycle for safer time for intercourse • Sterilization - permanent fertility control through surgical procedures

    8. Methods of Fertility Control • Tubal Ligation - female has fallopian tubes cut and tied off • Hysterectomy - removal of uterus • Vasectomy - male has vasa deferentia cut and tied off

    9. Abortion - medical means of terminating pregnancy • Vacuum aspirations - gentle suction to remove foetal • Dilation + Evacuation - foetal is both sucked and scraped out of the uterus • Hysterectomy - surgical removal of foetal • Induction abortion - chemicals used to remove foetal from uterus

    10. Planning a Pregnancy • Emotional Health • Paternal Health • Financial Evaluation • Contingency Planning

    11. Pregnancy Prenatal care - living a healthy lifestyle Choosing a Practitioner Alcohol and Drugs • Tertogenic -causing birth defects from drugs, chemicals, x-rays or disease • Foetal alcohol syndrome - a collection of problems……mental retardation

    12. The Process Early signs of Pregnancy • missed menstrual cycle • breast tenderness • extreme fatigue • sleeplessness • emotional upset • nausea • vomiting (morning sickness)

    13. Trimesters - a three month segment during pregnancy with specific developmental characteristics • The First Trimester • The Second Trimester • The Third Trimester

    14. Prenatal Testing & Screening • Amniocentesis - fluid drawn from the amniotic sac / identify specific medical problems • Amniotic sac -protective pouch surrounding baby

    15. Childbirth - Choosing Where to Have Your Baby • Hospitals • Birthing centers, etc, etc. Labour and Delivery - • Transition -cervix almost completely dilated / foetus head moves into birth canal • Episotomy - straight incision into the mother’s perineum • Afterbirth - expelled placenta

    16. Childbirth • Prenatal Education • Drugs in the Delivery Room • Breast-Feeding and the Postpartum Period • Postpartum depression - low energy, anxiety, mood swings and depression

    17. Complications - problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy • caesarian section (C-Section) • removal of baby via incision of abdominal and uterine walls • Rh factor - blood protein related to antibody development • …..if a Rh -negative mother has a Rh-positive baby / mother’s antibodies will attack the baby

    18. Complications - problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy • Stillbirth - birth of a dead baby • Miscarriage - loss of foetus before viable / spontaneous abortion • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - infants under one year of age

    19. Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving • Pelvic inflammatory disease - infection that scars the fallopian tubes / blocks sperm migration • Endometriosis - uterine lining establishes itself outside uterus

    20. Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving • Low sperm count - leading cause of infertility in men / below 60 million sperm per millilitre of semen • Fertility drugs -hormones to stimulate ovulation in women

    21. Alternative Insemination - partner's or donor’s sperm deposited into a women’s vagina / doctor supervised • In vitro fertilization - “test tube baby” • Gamete intrafallopian • Non-surgical Embryo Transfer • Embryo Transfer • Embryo Freezing • Surrogate Motherhood