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Chapter 6. Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. Methods of Fertility Control. Fertility - ability to reproduce Conception - fertilization of an ovum by a sperm Contraception - prevention of conception Condom - latex cover for penis to catch sperm upon ejaculation.

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Childbirth

methods of fertility control
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Fertility - ability to reproduce
  • Conception - fertilization of an ovum by a sperm
  • Contraception - prevention of conception
  • Condom - latex cover for penis to catch sperm upon ejaculation
methods of fertility control3
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Contraception effectiveness rate - % of women who become pregnant while correctly using a method contraception
  • Oral Contraception -” the pill” - prevents ovulation / regulating hormones
methods of fertility control4
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Morning-after pill - taken within three days after intercourse
  • Spermicides - kills sperm
  • Female Condom - single- use polyurethane sheath
  • Diaphragm - latex device to prevent sperm access to uterus
methods of fertility control5
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Intrauterine devise (IUD) - T shaped device implanted into uterus
  • Withdrawal - removing the penis before ejaculation
  • Depo-Provera - injectable form of BC lasts three months
methods of fertility control6
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Norplant - 6 silicon capsules surgically inserted under the skin of women’s upper arm
  • Fertility awareness methods - natural methods…… examples
  • Cervical mucus method - based on specific changes to cervical mucus
  • Body temp. method - monitor body temperature for signals of ovulation
methods of fertility control7
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Calendar Methods - mapping the woman’s menstrual cycle for safer time for intercourse
  • Sterilization - permanent fertility control through surgical procedures
methods of fertility control8
Methods of Fertility Control
  • Tubal Ligation - female has fallopian tubes cut and tied off
  • Hysterectomy - removal of uterus
  • Vasectomy - male has vasa deferentia cut and tied off
abortion medical means of terminating pregnancy
Abortion - medical means of terminating pregnancy
  • Vacuum aspirations - gentle suction to remove foetal
  • Dilation + Evacuation - foetal is both sucked and scraped out of the uterus
  • Hysterectomy - surgical removal of foetal
  • Induction abortion - chemicals used to remove foetal from uterus
planning a pregnancy
Planning a Pregnancy
  • Emotional Health
  • Paternal Health
  • Financial Evaluation
  • Contingency Planning
pregnancy
Pregnancy

Prenatal care - living a healthy lifestyle

Choosing a Practitioner

Alcohol and Drugs

  • Tertogenic -causing birth defects from drugs, chemicals, x-rays or disease
  • Foetal alcohol syndrome - a collection of problems……mental retardation
the process
The Process

Early signs of Pregnancy

  • missed menstrual cycle
  • breast tenderness
  • extreme fatigue
  • sleeplessness
  • emotional upset
  • nausea
  • vomiting (morning sickness)
trimesters a three month segment during pregnancy with specific developmental characteristics
Trimesters - a three month segment during pregnancy with specific developmental characteristics
  • The First Trimester
  • The Second Trimester
  • The Third Trimester
prenatal testing screening
Prenatal Testing & Screening
  • Amniocentesis - fluid drawn from the amniotic sac / identify specific medical problems
  • Amniotic sac -protective pouch surrounding baby
childbirth choosing where to have your baby
Childbirth - Choosing Where to Have Your Baby
  • Hospitals
  • Birthing centers, etc, etc.

Labour and Delivery -

  • Transition -cervix almost completely dilated / foetus head moves into birth canal
  • Episotomy - straight incision into the mother’s perineum
  • Afterbirth - expelled placenta
childbirth
Childbirth
  • Prenatal Education
  • Drugs in the Delivery Room
  • Breast-Feeding and the Postpartum Period
  • Postpartum depression - low energy, anxiety, mood swings and depression
complications problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy
Complications - problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy
  • caesarian section (C-Section)
  • removal of baby via incision of abdominal and uterine walls
  • Rh factor - blood protein related to antibody development
  • …..if a Rh -negative mother has a Rh-positive baby / mother’s antibodies will attack the baby
complications problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy18
Complications - problems that can occur even with a successful pregnancy
  • Stillbirth - birth of a dead baby
  • Miscarriage - loss of foetus before viable / spontaneous abortion
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - infants under one year of age
infertility difficulties in conceiving
Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease - infection that scars the fallopian tubes / blocks sperm migration
  • Endometriosis - uterine lining establishes itself outside uterus
infertility difficulties in conceiving20
Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving
  • Low sperm count - leading cause of infertility in men / below 60 million sperm per millilitre of semen
  • Fertility drugs -hormones to stimulate ovulation in women
slide21
Alternative Insemination - partner's or donor’s sperm deposited into a women’s vagina / doctor supervised
  • In vitro fertilization - “test tube baby”
  • Gamete intrafallopian
  • Non-surgical Embryo Transfer
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Embryo Freezing
  • Surrogate Motherhood