1 / 40

Section 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

Section 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age. I. Greece’s Golden Age 50 year period (477-431BC) when Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning art, science, literature all reached new heights during this time. A. Pericles’ Plan for Athens

Download Presentation

Section 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Section 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

  2. I. Greece’s Golden Age • 50 year period (477-431BC) when Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning • art, science, literature all reached new heights during this time

  3. A. Pericles’ Plan for Athens • Wise statesmen named Pericles led Athens during much of its golden age • Well respected Athenian army general • Had three goals: • strengthen Athenian democracy • hold and strengthen the empire • Glorify Athens

  4. 1. Stronger Democracy • Hired more political officials • Had more citizens engaged in gov’t than any other city state in Greece • One of the most democratic gov’ts in history • Introduced a direct democracy—form of gov’t in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

  5. 2. Stronger Athenian Empire • After the Persian Wars, Pericles helps form the Delian League. • Athens took control of Delian League • Pericles used Delian treasury to make Athens’ navy strongest in Mediterranean • Some city states resisted Athens- Sparta especially resisted

  6. 3. Glorifying Athens • Pericles also used money from the Delian league to beautify Athens- bought gold, ivory, and marble • Pericles’ ultimate goal was to have the greatest artists/architects create magnificent sculptors and buildings to glorify Athens.

  7. A. Glorious Art and Architecture • Greatest project was the Parthenon- a large temple to honor the goddess Athena • In the middle of the temple is a giant statue of Athena (39 ft. tall)

  8. Athena in the Parthenon RP- Building the Parthenon clip- 6min

  9. C. Architecture and Sculpture • Greek sculptors created sculptures that were graceful, strong, perfectly formed- showed values of harmony, order, balance, proportion • became known as classical art

  10. Classical Greek Sculpture The Discus Thrower David Winged Victory

  11. II. Drama and History A. Tragedy and Comedy • Greeks invented drama as an art form • Wrote 2 kinds of drama—tragedy/comedy • Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; includes themes of love, hate, and war • Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected ppl; slapstick humor • Dramatist include Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes

  12. B. History • Accurate history recorded and studied by Herodotus and Thucydides • Herodotus’ book on the Persian Wars is considered the first work of history • Thought events reoccur over time and by studying history one could understand the present

  13. III. Athenians and Spartans Go to War • As Athens grew wealthier/stronger, other city states view it w/ hostility- esp. Sparta • Both want war instead of trying to avoid it • 431 BC - War finally started b/w Athens&Sparta= Peloponnesian War

  14. A. Peloponnesian War • Sparta- better army, Athens- better navy • Athens not able to attack Sparta from the sea b/c it is too far inland • Sparta attacks- burns all of Athens’ crops • Pericles brings all Athenians inside city walls for protection • Everything ok until Plague swept through Athens killing 1/3 of the pop, w/ Pericles • After several years of fighting, Sparta and Athens sign a truce

  15. B. Sparta Gains Victory • peace does not last long • Athens attacks but is defeated • They fight for another 9 years but Athens eventually surrenders • The Golden Age of Athens is over

  16. IV. Philosophers Search for Truth • after war many lose faith in democracy • philosophers, “lovers of wisdom” seek truth • These Greek thinkers based their search for truth on 2 principles 1. the universe is put together in an organized way and is controlled by unchanging laws of nature 2. ppl can understand these laws through logic and reason

  17. A. Important Philosophers • Socrates- taught that ppl should examine their lives and question their beliefs and their character • Plato- student of Socrates, wrote The Republic, a book describing his idea of a perfectly governed society • Aristotle- student of Plato, questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge. Formed the basis of the scientific method

  18. These philosophers and their teachings dominated European society and culture for nearly 1,500 years and still have impact today.

  19. Section 4: The Empire of Alexander the Great

  20. What was the result of the Peloponnesian War? • severely weakened several Greek city-states • caused a decline in their military and economic power

  21. 2. Where is Macedonia in relation to Greece and what is the land like? • a nearby kingdom to the north of Greece • rough terrain and cold climate, mountainous ppl

  22. 3. How did the Macedonians view themselves and how did the Greeks view the Macedonians? • Macedonians thought of themselves as Greek • Greeks thought they were uncivilized foreigners 4. Who is Philip II? • 23 year old King of Macedonia • Brilliant general, ruthless politician

  23. 5. Describe how Philip II organizes his army? • made them a well-trained, professional army • made them phalanxes 16x16, each armed with an 18ft. spear • used the phalanx to break though enemy lines, then cavalry would crush the divided pieces

  24. 6. Describe the conquest of Greece. • the Greeks tried to unite against Philip of Macedonia but couldn’t agree • Thebes and Athens did unite but were defeated • Greek independence was over though they did retain control of local affairs

  25. 7. Why was Philip unable to invade Persia? • He was stabbed to death at his daughter’s wedding 8. Who took the throne after Philip II death? • His son, Alexander 9. Who taught Alexander? What did he study? • the Greek philosopher, Aristotle • he studied science, geography, literature

  26. 10. Why did Alexander destroy Thebes? What did other Greek city states do after Thebes was destroyed? • ppl rebelled so he destroyed them- killing most and selling the survivors into slavery • Other Greek city-states were fearful of similar treatment and gave up any idea of rebellion

  27. 11. Where did the Persian and Macedonian forces first meet? • at the Granicus river in Anatolia 12. What did Darius III do after learning of the Macedonian victory at the Granicus River? • raised a huge army of 50-75,000 men to face Alexander’s forces

  28. 13. What did Alexander do after he rejected Daruis’ peace settlement? • said he would take over all of Persia • marched into Egypt where he was welcomed and made pharaoh • left Egypt and defeated Persia for good at Gaugamela

  29. 14. What happened to Alexander’s army after they confronted an Indian army? • they smashed the army and continued marching east for 200 miles • but his army was home sick & tired after 11 yrs of war & 11,000 miles of travel • Alexander agreed to go home

  30. 15. What happened to Alexander’s Empire after his death? • his generals fought amongst themselves for power • three eventually gained control: Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucid 16. What cultural impact did Alexander’s conquests have? • a vibrant new culture emerged from a blend of Greek and Eastern (Persian) customs

  31. Alexander the Great’s Empire Youtube- Crash Course WH Alexander the Great- start at 2:00min.

  32. Section 5: The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

  33. I. Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria • Alexander the Great combined Greek culture w/ culture of conquered lands • blending of Greek culture w/ Egyptian, Persian, Indian= Hellenisticculture • One important contribution of Hellenistic culture was Koine Greek - the language spoken in Hellenistic cities • A common language allowed educated ppl to communicate from different cities all across Alexander’s empire

  34. A. Trade and Cultural Diversity • Among the many cities of the Hellenistic world the Egyptian city of Alexandria became the center of business and Hellenistic culture • Alexandria’s location on the Nile River made it perfect for trading • Ships from all over the Mediterranean docked in its harbor making it an international community

  35. B. Alexandria’s Attractions • A beautiful, organized city with grand palaces and broad avenues lined with statues of Greek gods

  36. Alexandria continued… • Two big attractions: • The Museum— a temple dedicated to Muses, the Greek goddesses of arts and sciences. The museum contained art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens, and a dining hall. • The Library—had a collection of half a million papyrus scrolls. The world’s first research library.

  37. The Museum The Library

  38. II. Science and Technology A. Astronomy • The Museum in Alexandria contained a small observatory (place to study the stars) • Aristarchus—estimated the sun was 300 times the size of the Earth. Proposed that Earth and other planets revolved around the sun

  39. Ptolemy—incorrectly placed the earth in the center of the universe, which was accepted for the next 14 generations • Eratosthenes—calculated the circumference of the Earth b/w 28-29,000 miles ( 24,860 miles is the true distance)

  40. B. Mathematics and Physics • Euclid—mathematician who taught in Alexandria and whose works are still the basis for courses in geometry today. • Archimedes—estimated the value of pi, invented the pulley system * By 150 BC the Hellenistic world was in decline. A new city, Rome, was growing and gaining strength

More Related