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Major Dialect Atlases. The Roadmaps To Linguistics. Christian Schimmrick BA Anglistik/Amerikanistik Seminar Dialectology Chemnitz University of Technology christian.schimmrick@s2007.tu-chemnitz.de. Table of Contents. Introduction Important Atlases & Their Development

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Major Dialect Atlases

  • The Roadmaps To Linguistics

Christian Schimmrick

BA Anglistik/Amerikanistik

Seminar Dialectology

Chemnitz University of Technology

christian.schimmrick@s2007.tu-chemnitz.de


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Table of Contents

  • Introduction

  • Important Atlases & Their Development

    • Linguistic Atlas of New England

    • Linguistic Atlas of England

    • Atlas of North American English

  • Tools & Additions

    • Indexes to Linguistic Atlases

  • References



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    Introduction

    • A Dialect Atlas is a publication containing a set of maps on which speech variations are recorded — also called Linguistic Atlas.

    • (Source: Miriam Webster Online)

    • A Dialect Atlas is a collection of maps of a certain area indicating the distribution of various phonological, morphological, lexical, or other features of the dialects of that area.

    • (Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary)


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    Introduction

    • Why do we need Linguistic Atlases?

      • present survey data graphically

      • unified, compact source for dialect research

      • cover a broad range of linguistic features

      • enable us to trace historical development of languages


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    Introduction

    • Which map types do Linguistic Atlases contain?


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    Important Atlases & Their Development



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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Facts

      • initiated in the early 1920s by Hans Kurath and others

      • first American Linguistic Atlas

      • contains over 700 maps

      • survey: 1931-1933

      • over 400 interview informants

      • data collecting: 750 item questionnaire

      • answers recorded in IPA transcription



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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Development

      • plan of mapping dialect of North American English

      • fieldworkers traveled to pre-selected communities

      • in every community : 2 informants

      • informant profiles set by Kurath:- Informant 1: old-fashioned / unschooled (farmer)- Informant 2: middle-class member / grade- or highschool

      • priority on historical American towns (early American settlements)

      • results of interviews were plotted on many maps


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Development

      • every map shows the distribution of:- regional vocabulary- pronunciation- forms of grammarand the actual phonetic form of the Informants words/phrases

      • use of isoglosses and/or word boundaries


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Impact

      • published 1939 - 1943 in three volumes

      • this atlas is the foundation of historical analyses

      • classic resource for linguists

      • most complete publication in the history of American dialectology

      • although the survey fieldwork has been completed:- each region still has a director, analyzing data & completing it- supervising work


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Hans Kurath

      • born: 1891 in Villach, Austria

      • immigrated to the US in 1907

      • leading figure in American geographical linguistics

      • 1920: graduate student in German Linguistics at University of Chicago:- had the opportunity to travel a lot through the USA- found many varieties of regional English

      • convinced to create a complete, systematic study of American English


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Hans Kurath

      • main interest of research: historical linguistics

      • reconstruct the evolution of American English from the „pure“ forms of the early settlers to contemporary regional dialects

      • in 1920s: professor for German and Linguistics

      • was convinced that language is a record book of society and events (growth of trade / urbanization / population movements)

      • Linguistic Atlas of New England: huge success- beginning of survey & atlas development in England - 1941: president of the Linguistic Society of America



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    The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

    success of Hans Kuraths Linguistic Atlas of New England made up the ground for English Dialect Atlas development

    Kurath in front of the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences:„Unfortunately the lines leading back to the Mother Country, to England [...], will remain vague and tentative until a linguistic Atlas of the British Isles is made.“ (Hans Kurath, ‚Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences‘ , 1935)

    one of the most important stages of the English Dialect survey (SED) planned by Harold Orton and Eugen Dieth

    Important Atlases & Their Development


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    The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

    first, fullest, systematically collected body of dialect material for all english regions

    strong historical bias

    field survey: 1950 - 1961

    11 special trained fieldworkers & over 300 localities

    data collecting: 1300 questions survey featuring phonological / lexical / morphological and syntactical features

    high consistency of material quality expected

    Important Atlases & Their Development


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    The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

    questionnaire took 18 hours to complete

    informants: - over 60 years old- one man & one woman- agricultural background

    after completing survey: 404 000 items

    Important Atlases & Their Development


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    SED interview: fieldworker & informant


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    The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

    9 sections of the questionnaire:1. The Farm & Farming2. Animals3. Nature4. House & Housekeeping5. The Human Body6. Numbers7. Time & Weather8. Social Activities9. States, Actions, Relations

    reflects the environment and the daily life of the English countryman

    reason: old dialect forms are mostly found in rural areas

    Important Atlases & Their Development


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    Phonological Map

    Isoglosses

    Example:

    „week“

    IPA Transcription

    Survey Data


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    The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Development

    aims of the atlas:- present traditional vernacular English - rely on oldest and most conservative forms of dialect speech- illustrate regional distribution of speech used since ancient times

    use of isoglosses

    Orton emphasized older forms to show greater derivation from Standard English

    sound-recordings after 1952 not successful:- financial problems- obscures general patterns of distribution (confusion)

    Important Atlases & Their Development


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Harold Orton

      • born: 1898 in Byers Green, Durham, England

      • university lecturer and dialectologist (University of Leeds)

      • co-founder of the SED (Survey of English Dialects) with Eugen Dieth

      • retired in 1964 and died in 1975, the year of the expected publication

      • planned the publication programme:- Introduction (1962)- Basic Material (1962-1971) / 4 volumes; each three parts



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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts

      • record of the regional dialects of English spoken in the US & Canada

      • based on the TELSUR telephone survey carried out 1992 - 1999

      • provides the first comprehensive view of North American pronunciation & phonology

      • main focus on:- mechanisms,- causes and- consequences,of linguistic change


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts

      • no fieldworkers compared to LANE & LAOE:- 13 telephone interviewers- chosen telephone numbers identifying major ethnic groups

      • 805 recorded interviews

      • 762 informants living in urbanized areas (> 50.000 inhabitants)

      • mostly Euro-Americans

      • tape / digital recording & acoustic editing by normalization program (PLOTNIK)


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts

      • provides information on:- perception and production- acoustic measurements- realization of phonemic categories & forms- phonological systems & individual phonemes

      • featuring 139 color maps + sound samples on CD-ROM

      • shows the change of sounds IN PROGRESS in relation to gender, age and city size


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Impact

      • major aim: re-establish the links of dialect geography and general linguistics (data vs theoretical interpretation)

      • develop connections between Atlas data and the theory of soundchange

      • reveals increasing diversity of English in North America



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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    Merger of /i/ and /e/ before nasals

    ‚pin‘ vs ‚pen‘


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : William Labov

      • born in 1927 in Rutherford, New Yersey, USA

      • one of the most important linguists

      • regarded as the founder of sociolinguistics (the study of language in human society)

      • 1948: Harvard

      • 1949 - 1961: industrial chemist

      • 1971 - now: professor of linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : William Labov

      • famous for his methods of data collecting

      • influential in social dialectology

      • still studies changes in phonology of American English




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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • Indexes to Dialect / Linguistic Atlases : Facts

      • list-type publications showing data of many linguistic atlas projects

      • often necessary for research

      • usually atlases contain lists of the questionnaire data & the appropriate maps

      • confusion


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    Important Atlases & Their Development

    • Indexes to Dialect / Linguistic Atlases : Why?

      • get an overview over the numerous publications of publications

      • compact tool of research:- ‚item of interest‘ vs ‚where to find‘

      • long term projects (like atlases) suffer from fragmentation:- the longer the project the more data- overlapping of certain publications - no overlapping: confusion where to find the missing data

      • enable us a de-fragmented, easier view on material in compact form (good overview over the data of many survey/Atlas publications, making them comparable)



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    References

    • Fischer, AndreasAn Index to Dialect Maps of Great Britain (1991)

    • Labov, Bill (2005)The Atlas of North American English

    • Orton, Harold (1971)The Linguistic Atlas of England

    • Widdowson, J.D.A. & Upton, Cliff (1996)An Atlas of English Dialects


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    References

    • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html

    • http://us.english.uga.edu/

    • http://www.muturzikin.com/cartesusa/usa.htm

    • http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/17

    • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/home.html

    • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/maps/Map3.html

    • http://www.unc.edu/~gerfen/Ling30Sp2002/sociolinguistics.html