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  • Musicians in the late eighteenth century worked mainly for courts, cities, and churches, but they also made money by teaching, performing, and composing on commission or for publication. As popularity with the public became more important, the most successful composers wrote music that pleased everyone from connoisseurs to those with little learning.
  • The leading composers of the late 18th century were Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). No one was better at reaching a diverse audience than Haydn and Mozart, whose music has come to exemplify the Classic period.
Haydn 的 早年
  • Haydn was born near Vienna.
  • He was a choirboy at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, where he studied singing, harpsichord, and violin.
  • Dismissed when his voice changed, he worked freelance in Vienna and studied music.
  • Around 1757, he became music director for Count Morzin and composed his first symphonies for him.
the esterh zy years
The Esterházy years
  • Haydn spent most of his career working for the Esterházys, a wealthy Hungarian noble family.
  • Prince Paul Anton Esterházy hired Haydn in 1761.
  • Nikolaus Esterházy succeeded his brother Paul in 1762 and became Haydn's principal patron for nearly thirty years (see HWM Source Reading, page 528).
the esterh zy years7
The Esterházy years
  • Haydn's duties for the Esterházy family:
  • Compose music
  • Conduct performances
  • Train and supervise musical personnel
  • Keep the musical instruments in good condition
  • Paul Anton
  • Nicolas
esterh za
  • In 1766, the Esterházy family moved from Eisenstadt in Austria to Esterháza, a remote country estate in Hungary
  • The estate, which rivaled the splendor of Versailles, had two theaters and two music rooms.
  • Haydn built an orchestra of about twenty-five performers and gave weekly concerts, occasional opera performances, and daily chamber music sessions.
the esterh zy years10
The Esterházy Years
  • Although Haydn kept abreast of current musical developments, his isolation at Esterháza and the encouragement of his patron helped him to become original.
  • A new contract in 1779 allowed Haydn to publish his music in major European centers, which further enhanced his reputation.
  • Prince Nikolaus died in 1790, and Haydn was given permission to live in Vienna.
the london years
The London years
  • Johann Peter Salomon, a violinist and impresario, persuaded Haydn to come to London for concert tours between 1791 and 1795.
  • For the London concerts. Haydn composed numerous new works, including his last twelve symphonies.
  • Haydn and his music were received with great acclaim in London.
Haydn 的風格
  • 雖然他的音樂依循當代常規, Haydn 常常引入不依常規的新鮮意外.
  • Haydn 風格的源頭
  • The galant style 優雅風格
  • The expressiveness of the empfindsam style 善感風格
  • Baroque 對位法
  • Generic clichés 一般的陳規
Haydn 的交響曲
  • Haydn 約寫了106 首交響曲.
  • 其中104首依次編列號數.
  • 許多交響曲帶有標題, 但鮮少是作者的主意.
  • 他的交響曲 通常是四樂章 four movements.
  • A fast sonata-form movement, often with a slow introduction
Haydn 的交響曲

b. A slow movement

c. A minuet and trio

d. A fast finale, usually in sonata or rondo form

5. 除了慢板樂章是關係調外, 其餘樂章都是同一調性.

6. Haydn 格式成為之後作家的標準.

  • 海頓106首交響曲涵蓋了全方位的音樂風格, 最早期的作品屬於典型的前古典時期, 到了1770年代, 海頓近至羽翼豐滿的古典時期, 最後的作品呈現實驗性, 豐富了成熟古典樂派的語匯, 他從通俗的民間巧技開始,最終抵達藝術的至高境界。
  • 音樂在他筆下,擺脫了宮廷的禮節陳規和輕浮嬉戲,成為一種極具個性的表達 一種奧地利農夫的表達,熱愛生活的表達,大自然多姿多彩的表達,其中蘊藏萬花筒般的機智、幽默、歡樂和悲愁。
  • 他從意大利人那裡習得形式圓滿的美感,從德國人那裡得知對位的奧秘,但他始終是一個技藝熟撚、精通藝術的奧地利人。
  • Haydn's earliest symphonies were composed for Count Morzin (1757-61).
  • Typically, they were scored for two oboes, two horns, and strings.
  • Most of these are in three movements.
  • The sonata-form movements tend to use themes that could be broken up and recombined.
  • Haydn composed about thirty symphonies in his early years with the Esterházy family (1761-67).
  • The ensemble was often augmented with flute, bassoon, and other instruments.
  • These diverse works are characterized by novelty and variety. Symphony No. 6, Le Matin (Morning)
  • Symphony No. 7, Le Midi (Noon)
  • Symphony No. 8, Le Soir (Evening)
1768 74
1768-74 交響曲
  • The symphonies of 1768-74 are longer and more serious works than earlier symphonies and require the listener‘s close attention. The emotional, agitated, minor-key character of some has been linked to the slightly later literary movement SturmundDrang狂飆時期, from the title of a 1776 play). Haydn introduces more startling dramatic contrasts, richer harmonies, more distant modulations, and more counterpoint. Increasingly, each symphony has unique features that mark it as an individual.
1774 88
1774-88 交響曲
  • The symphonies after 1774 are less experimental, more cheerful, and infused with the appealing style of comic opera. The six Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were commissioned for a concert series in Paris. In Symphonies Nos. 88-92, Haydn often begins with a slow introduction; uses contrasting second themes less often; features the winds more; and infuses the finale with counterpoint, increasing its weight without sacrificing popular appeal. Music: NAWM 94-95
symphony no 56 in c major
Symphony, No. 56 in C Major
  • The symphonies after 1774 are less experimental, more cheerful, and infused with the appealing style of comic opera.
  • 段落分明
symphony no 92 in g major
Symphony, No. 92 in G Major
  • The slow movement is in ABA form.
  • Haydn's slow movements tend to provide a calm and gentle melody in contrast to the dramatic first movements.
  • Other common slow-movement forms are the sonata form without repeats and the theme and variations.
  • The Oxford has a songlike theme, a dramatic middle section in the tonic minor, and an abbreviated reprise.
  • The coda features woodwind instruments and uses chromatic harmonies
London 交響曲
  • Haydn wrote music to suit particular occasions, performers, and halls and to please both the expert and the untutored music lover. His London Symphonies were aimed at the London audience, with greater tunefulness (including Slovenian and Croatian peasant tunes), more varied orchestration, and striking changes of key.
London 交響曲
  • First movements tend to focus on the first theme rather than introducing a contrasting second theme, the slow movements use theme and variations or a variant of sonata form and the minuet-and-trio movements are faster and often humorous. The finales use sonata form, rondo form (ABACA or ABACABA), or a blend of the two. Music: NAWM 96
London 交響曲

海頓交響曲 104, IV

呈示 發展 再現 尾奏

形式∥: A A B C :∥ |A A B C ∥ ∥

主調~ 屬調 關係小調~~屬調 主調~主調~~e ~主調~

弦樂四重奏 ~1781
  • Haydn wrote 36 string quartets between 1757 and 1781 and published them in sets of six. His Opp. 17 (1771) and 20 (1772) collections established his reputation as the first great master of the string quartet. The same movement types are used as in the symphony, although the minuet-and-trio sometimes precedes the slow movement.
弦樂四重奏 ~1781
  • The Op. 33 quartets (1781) are lighter, with the minuet transformed into a scherzo (joke) through a faster tempo and witty hemiolas, syncopations, and rhythmic surprises. Quartets were intended primarily for amateurs to play for their own amusement, and Haydn's witty touches must have added to their pleasure.
op 3 no 2 the joke
四重奏, Op. 3, No. 2 (The Joke), 終曲
  • String Quartet in The rondo form is ABACA.
  • 開始主題是binary form, 帶有玩耍且意猶未盡的特質.
  • BC兩個插入樂段(episodes)並未引進新的素材.
  • 整個樂章大多從開始的兩小節動機中, 演變而來, 這顯現了Haydn對於素材的簡約與創新的功力's sense of economy and novelty.
op 3 no 2 the joke30
四重奏, Op. 3, No. 2 (The Joke), 終曲
  • Haydn heightens drama with extensions and delay.
  • 誇張的戲劇表現得十分幽默, 造成一種機智的效果.
  • The quartet derives its name from Haydn's playful final cadence of the movement (see HWM Example 22.2).
  • Haydn's wit is especially endearing to players and connoisseurs, but also appeals to inexperienced listeners.
1785 90
弦樂四重奏 1785-90
  • The 19 quartets of 1785-90 show a trend toward monothematic first movements and slow movements in theme-and-variation form.
  • Haydn wrote 15 more string quartets between 1793 and 1803. These are marked by widely ranging harmonies, stark juxtapositions of contrasting styles, and many witty touches. Music: NAWM 98
  • Haydn 視其聲樂曲高於其器樂曲
  • Haydn於Esterhaza大部分時間為了歌劇寫作與製作
  • Armida (1784), a serious opera, is remarkable for its dramatic accompanied recitatives and grand arias.
  • Haydn's operas are rarely performed today.
  • 最後6首彌撒是大型節慶性的作品, 包括
  • Missa in tempore belli (戰爭時期 1796)
  • Lord Nelson Mass (1798)
  • Theresienmesse (1799).
  • Harmoniemesse (管樂 Mass, 1802)
  • They are set for four vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra with trumpets and timpani.
  • Haydn retains traditional elements, such as fugal writing.
  • Haydn also incorporates symphonic elements.
  • Haydn 在倫敦聽到 Handel的神劇身受感動.
  • Major works.
  • 創世紀The Creation (1798), 根據舊約 Genesis 與 Milton 的失樂園
  • 四季The Seasons (1801)
  • published in German and English.
  • Baron Gottfried van Swieten wrote the German texts.
  • Haydn對於起初天地混沌的描述, 和聲與戲劇張力, 特別直得注意
mozart haydn
Mozart 與 Haydn
  • 互為朋友並敬重對方
  • Mozart 與 Haydn 被視為等量齊觀, 共同定義此一時期的音樂.
  • 生涯事業卻迥異其趣
  • Mozart achieved international recognition earlier, despite being twenty-four years younger.
  • Mozart never found a permanent position and worked as a free agent in Vienna
  • 罕有的天才.
  • 父親 Leopold Mozart (1719-1787) 啟蒙
  • Leopold 是Salzburg 主教的樂師作曲家.
  • 出版極受讚揚的小提琴教本 in 1756.
  • Leopold 犧牲自己的事業, 全力培養年輕的Mozart 與其姊 Nannerl (1751-1829).
  • Mozart 旅行演奏遍及歐洲 (1762-1773).
  • 為王宮貴族演奏提琴與鍵盤樂.
  • 被視為奇蹟. 五歲作曲, 九歲寫交響曲, 11歲寫神劇, 12歲寫歌劇
  • During these travels, Mozart 吸收當地的音樂曲種與風格,合成在他自己的作品中
  • Johann Schobert (ca. 1735-1767) was a prominent keyboard composer in Paris.
  • Johann Christian Bach, whom Mozart met in London, used songful themes, tasteful appoggiaturas and triplets, harmonic ambiguities, and contrasting themes in sonata forms, qualities that appealed to Mozart.
1769 73
1769-73, 義大利歲月
  • In Italy, Mozart studied counterpoint with Padre Martini and composed operas and string quartets.
  • The influence of Sammartini is evident in the symphonies written between 1770 and 1773.
  • Mozart's visit to Vienna in 1773 introduced him to current trends, and his six quartets, K. 168-173, reflect Viennese traditions.
salzburg 1774 81
Salzburg 時期 (1774-81)
  • In Mozart's time, musicians earned money either with steady employment with a patron or with freelancing.
  • Mozart held a position with the archbishop of Salzburg for eight years.
  • Unhappy with the archbishop, Mozart looked for other employment.
  • He received a commission to compose the opera seria Idomeneo (1781).
  • He soon decided to leave the archbishop's service and go to Vienna.
vienna 1781 91
  • 自由音樂家 Mozart 靠多方收入維生.
  • Singspiel 後宮誘拐 (The Abduction from the Harem, 1782) 十分成功.
  • 教授作曲與鋼琴學生.
  • 以鋼琴家身分在Vienna公共或私人音樂會中演出.
  • 自己推出音樂會,受委任作曲並出版.
  • 1787年, 受聘emperor室內樂作曲家

2. 1788年後, 受入減少且理財不當, 似乎有財務困難

later influences
Later influences
  • Haydn spent winters in Vienna, and they became friends.
  • The music of J. S. Bach was brought to Mozart's attention through Baron van Swieten, and Mozart responded with increased contrapuntal textures.
  • Swieten also introduced Mozart to Handel.
  • Mozart 寫作 sonatas, fantasias, variations, rondos, and piano duets.
  • 這些作品多是為其學生, 家庭娛樂, 與出版.
  • 他的19 首piano sonatas 是其最受歡迎的作品.
  • A set of six sonatas (K. 279-284) was composed in Munich in 1775.
  • Three sonatas were written in Mannheim and Paris in 1777-78 (K. 309-311).
  • Three sonatas were published in 1784 (K. 330-332) and reflect his mature Viennese style.
sonata in f k 332
器樂曲-鋼琴Sonata in F, K. 332
  • The movement, in sonata form, has repeats for both halves of the structure.
  • Mozart's themes tend to be songlike, as seen in the opening theme.
  • Typically, a contrasting idea is introduced gracefully within the first theme.
  • Mozart effortlessly employs galant, learned, hunting, and Sturm und Drang styles within the first thirty measures.
  • The development begins with a new melody
  • Viennese style.
  • Mozart 1770 年間寫了16 首弦樂四重奏.
  • 在 Vienna (1782-85) 又寫了六首.
  • 題獻給 Haydn, 名之為 the Haydn Quartets.
  • 這些作品有多的主題發展與對位.
  • Some of Mozart's finest chamber works are the quintets for two violins, two violas, and cello.
  • Mozart felt that the Quintet for Piano and Winds, K. 452 was his best work.
  • Mozart composed a number of other works for winds and strings.
器樂曲夜曲 & 嬉遊曲
  • Mozart composed these works for garden parties and outdoor performances.
  • Although background music, Mozart gave them serious treatment.
  • These works appear in a variety of settings, ranging from duets to six or eight wind instruments.
  • Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music, K. 525, 1787) is Mozart's best-known serenade and can be played by a string quintet or a string orchestra.
  • Mozart composed piano concertos in Salzburg in the 1770s, most notably the Piano Concerto in E-flat Major, K. 271 (1777).
  • The seventeen piano concertos composed in Vienna are major works in Mozart's compositional output; each is a masterpiece.
  • Similar to the works of J. C. Bach, Mozart's concertos are in three movements, and the first movements combine elements of ritornello and sonata forms.
k 488
器樂曲-鋼琴協奏曲 K. 488
  • The three solo sections resemble the exposition, development, and recapitulation of a sonata form.
  • The opening orchestral ritornello presents the first theme, transition, second theme, and closing themes in the tonic key.
  • Ritornellos return to mark the end of the first and third solo section.

d. The orchestra also punctuates the long solo sections.

e. The cadenza appears in the final ritornello section.

f. The orchestral transition material serves as a strong contrast to the lyric themes.

g. A significant new idea is introduced at the beginning of the development.


The second movement of a Mozart concerto resembles a lyrical aria.

  • The key is often in the subdominant and sometimes in the dominant or relative minor.
  • Typical forms are sonata without development, variations, and rondo.

The final movement is usually a rondo or sonata-rondo based on themes of a popular character.

Mozart balanced virtuosic display with colorful orchestral material, as evident in the numerous wind solos.

  • 到維也納之前, Mozart寫了近50首交響曲, 多是三個樂章.
  • 維也納時期Mozart 只寫了6首; 首首是傑作.
  • Haffner Symphony, K. 385 (1782)
  • Linz Symphony, K. 425 (1783)
  • Prague Symphony in D Major, K. 504 (1786)
  • Symphony in E-flat Major, K. 543 (1788)
  • Symphony in G Minor, K. 550 (17880)
  • Jupiter Symphony in C Major, K. 551 (1788)
  • 到維也納之前, Mozart寫了近50首交響曲, 多是三個樂章.
  • 維也納時期Mozart 只寫了6首; 首首是傑作.
  • Haffner Symphony, K. 385 (1782)
  • Linz Symphony, K. 425 (1783)
  • Prague Symphony in D Major, K. 504 (1786)
  • Symphony in E-flat Major, K. 543 (1788)
  • Symphony in G Minor, K. 550 (17880)
  • Jupiter Symphony in C Major, K. 551 (1788)
  • The G-Minor Symphony 小聲的以像波浪起伏般的旋律開始.
  • Jupiter Symphony 終樂章是首對位傑作, 在coda 部分將5個主題連結, ars combinatoria (the art of musical combination and permutation;
  • In 1768, Mozart composed his first operas.
  • La finta semplice (假裝的笨蛋), 喜歌劇
  • Bastien und Bastienne, a Singspiel 歌謠據
  • He composed two opere serie in the early 1770s for Milan.
  • Two operas were composed for Munich.
  • La finta giardiniera (1775), an opera buffa
  • Idomeneo (1781), an opera seria that reflects the reformist trends of Gluck.
  • Die Enführung aus dem Serail (1782) established his operatic reputation.
  • Mozart raised the Singspiel to the level of an artwork.
  • The "oriental" setting was popular at this time, and Mozart uses Turkish-style music (see HWM Source Reading, page 560). .
da ponte
Da Ponte 歌劇
  • All three were Italian comic operas.
  • The Marriage of Figaro (1786)
  • Don Giovanni (Don Juan, 1787)

c. Così fan tutte (女人皆是如此, 1790)

2. Da Ponte and Mozart gave greater depth to the characters.

3. Mozart's ensembles allowed characters to express contrasting emotions at the same time.

4. Mozart's orchestration, particularly his use of winds, helped define the characters and situations.

don giovanni
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • The opera premiered in Prague.
  • Da Ponte and Mozart took the legendary character of Don Juan seriously as a rebel against authority.
  • The opera mixes opera seria characters and opera buffa characters.
  • All character types are combined in the brilliant dance music in the finale of Act I.
don giovanni60
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • Leporello complains in an opera-buffa style with an ABCBB' form.
  • Donna Anna and Don Giovanni sing in a dramatic opera seria style, while Leporello frets in a buffa style; the form is ABB.
  • The ensuing duel ends in a death, a shocking scene in a comic opera.
  • A powerful trio in F minor laments the turn of events.
  • At the end, Don Giovanni and Leporello revert to comic banter.
don giovanni61
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • 這一場的三重唱把三個人物刻劃得十分出色(100a)。埃爾維拉的旋律高視闊步,怒氣沖沖的大幅度跳越,加上弦樂器的激動的跑句和顫音,同唐璜的緊閉嘴唇、煞無介事而輕薄的語調、萊波雷洛的無聊的絮叨形成強烈對比,削弱了萊波雷洛企圖醫治棄婦破碎心靈的努力。
don giovanni62
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • 接下去是萊波雷洛的著名的「清單」詠嘆調(100b),他歷數唐璜在各國的勳績以及吸引他的各種女色,顯示出Mozart的喜劇藝術的又一方面—seriousness。聽眾被詳細的性格刻劃、繪聲繪色的歌詞、層次細膩的和聲和配器所鎮住,不得不嚴肅地接受歌劇中最有趣的這一首詠嘆調。這首詠嘆調分兩個部分,4/4拍子的快板和小步舞曲節拍節奏的andante con moto。
don giovanni63
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • 第一部分《這是一本清單》是清點數目,樂隊演奏頓音,成為計數機。第二部分小步舞曲繼續描繪一個個上鉤女性的體態個性。在「他讚美金髮女郎的嫻雅」這一句歌詞上,我們聽到一個官廷小步舞曲的曲調;在「黑髮女郎的忠貞」上,先是短短的休止,然後聽到幾小節感人的交響樂,聽到第一幕開始萊波雷洛自誇忠心耿耿處的回憶;「讚美白髮女郎的甜美」呼出小步舞曲主題的用變化音三度的變奏;「小個子女郎」用十六分音符的連珠炮似的說話加上高音管樂器八度重複來描寫。
don giovanni64
歌劇 Don Giovanni
  • 萊波雷洛正要說:唐璜對初涉情場的天真的「新手」的傾心之前,出現一個降六度上的虛偽終止,接著萊波雷洛莊嚴地用宣敘調唱出歌詞。
  • 這一短短的插部也有曲式功能,導致開場音樂回復前的終止性段落。這些只是作曲家不吝筆墨、細緻處理喜劇中的每一項細節的許多表現之一。
magic flute
歌劇 Magic Flute
  • 這齣Singspiel在他逝世那年所寫, 同年還寫了opera seria La clemenza di Tito (Titus的仁慈).
  • 故事充滿了象徵共濟會理念與儀式的內容.
  • Mozart交織使用各種不同的聲樂風格.
  • His early sacred music is not considered to be among his major works.
  • The masses reflect the current symphonic-operatic idiom with standard fugal sections.
  • 安魂曲The Requiem, K. 626
  • The work was commissioned by Count Walsegg in 1791.
  • Unfinished at Mozart's death, it was completed by his pupil, Franz Xaver Süssmayr (1766-1803).