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Kinesiology Analysis of a Long Jump. Daintylee Dixon Dennis Nwabude Marc Lujares Sike Ekhator Yajaira Rodriguez. Introduction.

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kinesiology analysis of a long jump

Kinesiology Analysis of a Long Jump

Daintylee Dixon

Dennis Nwabude

Marc Lujares

Sike Ekhator

Yajaira Rodriguez

  • Long Jump is an athletic (track and field) event where athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in attempt to land as far from the take-off point as possible.
  • The Long Jump consist of four phases: Approach, Take-off (TO), Flight and Landing.
phase i approach
Phase I- Approach
  • The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff.
  • The greater the velocity, or speed, at takeoff, the higher and longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be.
  • The importance of a higher velocity at takeoff is a major factor in the success rate for many sprinters in this event.
joints and muscles of approach
Joints and Muscles of Approach


Concentric and Eccentric

  • gluteus maximus
  • hamstring
  • -vasti
  • - soleus
  • Gastrocnemius
  • tibialis


  • rectus femoris
  • soleus

Joints Movement

  • supination / pronation/ plantarflexion at ankle
  • flexion and extension at the knee
  • extention and flexion at the hip
phase ii take off to
Phase II- Take-off (TO)
  • The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete’s center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.
  • This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump.
  • While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.
  • There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and bounding takeoff. We will focus on the sprint take-off (TO).
the sprint styles of to
The Sprint styles of TO
  • The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff.
  • This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride.
  • It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.
muscles and joints of sprint to
Muscles and Joints of Sprint TO



- hamstring


- Gluteus Maximus

- rectus femoris

Concentric and Eccentric

- Vasti - soleus and gastrocnemius

Joints movement

  • Plantar-flexion and dorsi-flexion at ankle
  • flexion and full extension at knee
  • extension and flexion at hip


-hip acts as stabilizer

phase iii flight
Phase III- Flight
  • The objective of this phase is to counteract the natural forward rotation of the body from takeoff while maintaining an effective landing position.
  • Once a competitor leaves contact with the ground there is nothing that can be done to alter the flight path of his or her center of gravity. What ‘’will’’ affect the distance of the jump is the body position at landing.

If a competitor was to leave the ground without taking any action to prevent forward rotation in the air, the body would naturally move into a facedown position as the velocity of the lower half of the body at takeoff is greater than the upper half of the body due to the contact with the ground.

  • The three predominant in-the-air techniques used in the long jump in order of increasing difficulty of execution are the sail, hang, and hitch-kick. We will focus on the sail techniques.
the sail techniques of flight
The Sail Techniques of Flight
  • The sail technique is one of the most basic long jump techniques practiced by competitors.
  • After the takeoff phase is complete, the jumper immediately lifts the legs into a toe-touching position.
  • This is useful for the beginner jumper, as it allows the competitor to move into the landing position early.
  • The downside of this technique is that it does not counter the body’s natural tendency to rotate too far forward.
muscles and joints of sail technique of flight
Muscles and Joints of Sail technique of Flight



-gluteus maximus




-rectus femoris

-Vastus medialis / lateralis


- Flexion and extension at the hip

  • extension and flexion at the knee
  • Plantar-flexion ankle
phase iv landing
Phase IV- Landing
  • When landing, it is the primary objective of the jumper to not fall back in the landing pit.
  • The jump is measured from the location in which the body contacts the sand closest to the takeoff point.
  • For this reason many jumpers will work on keeping their feet in front of the body at a maximum distance from the hips.
  • Upon landing, competitors will often use their arms in a sweeping motion to help keep the legs up and the body forward.
  • Generally a jumper will bend the knees upon contacting the ground to cushion the impact on the body.
muscles and joints of landing
Muscles and Joints of Landing
  • Muscles


- quadriceps

- hamstring

- gluteus maximus


  • Gastrocnemius

Joint Movements:

  • Dorsi-flexion at ankle,
  • Flexion at knee and hip
newton laws
Newton Laws
  • Newton’s Laws help to explain the relationship between forces and their impact on individual joints, as well as on total body motion.
  • These concepts can help one understand athletic movements, improve athletic function, understand mechanisms of injury, treat and prevent injury.
newton s 1 st law of inertia
Newton’s 1st - Law of Inertia
  • The body remain at rest or in motion except when compelled by an external force to change its state.

The Approach:

  • The greater the velocity, or speed, at takeoff, the higher and longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be.
  • Take-off (TO):
      • The resistance to change in a body’s angular velocity depends on both the body center of mass and axis of rotation.
  • In the Sail technique of flight:
      • at the point at which the legs are flexed that brings the center of mass to the AOR and inertia is increased.
newton 2 nd law of acceleration
Newton 2nd- Law of Acceleration

The acceleration of the body is directly proportional to the force causing it. This takes place in the same direction in which the force acts and it is inversely proportional of the body.

The Approach :

  • Has to be long enough to allow the body to transition from acceleration to the upright running phase that the jumper uses to reach maximum velocity on the last two strides.
  • Approach Prior to Take-off (TO) creates greater impulse and momentum which results in an increase velocity.
acceleration continue
Acceleration continue

Take-Off (TO):

  • Jumper gets ready to change force to a vertical position, slow down and changes direction.
  • In take off in order for the jumper to create more acceleration, the jumper decreases moment of inertia.
  • The jumper attempts to create as much force as quick as possible (decrease time) thus create increase peak force.

Flight and Landing:

  • The acceleration created during the approach and take-off is the result of greater distance.
newton 3 rd law of action reaction
Newton 3rd -Law of Action-Reaction

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Approach and take-off:

  • More force is created through the jumper’s mass.

The Flight:

  • During the Sail Technique the jumper brings the body to mid circumference which brings the body to a state of mass moment of Inertia making an increase of the radius of Gyration and an increase of distance between the axis of rotation and the center of mass.
applied forces
Applied forces

Internal forces:

  • Forces act within the body.
  • Internal forces can cause movement of the body segments at a joint, but cannot produce a change in motion of a body’s COM.
    • So, the runner is able to travel forces at every joints

External forces:

  • Forces that acts on a object/body as a result of its interaction with the environment surrounding.
    • As the runner does the Approach phase the distance created acceleration and velocity allowing the runner to jump a greater distance.
  • The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include, but are not limited to, those listed below:


  • Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 2-3 times a week.

Over-distance running

  • This is beneficial for building sprint endurance.

Weight training

  • It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk.


  • Effective flexibility works to prevent injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump.
activating muscle and recruitment of nervous system
Activating Muscle and Recruitment of Nervous System
  • Increasing the number of muscular fibers activated to produce greater force or carry out a particular movement must be use in large muscle (e.g. thigh- recruitment of muscle).
  • Active muscle force output varies over a wide gradiation in order to allow for appropriate use of force to carry out activity in a smooth and control manner.

The contraction of the gastrocnemius and the quadriceps is crucial to produce a greater force. The multi-pennation at the gastrocnemius produce great force.


Take-off (TO):

  • Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes will have negative effects on the jump.
  • Taking off from the board heel-first will cause a breaking effect, which will decrease velocity and put strain on the joints.
  • Jumping off the toes will decrease stabilization, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper.
  • Clifford, L. The take off drill for the long jump. n.d. PHD Department of Kinesiology: The University of Michigan
  • Neumann, D. Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System. 2002. Human Kinetics.
  • Seyfarth et al. Optimum take-off techniques and muscle design for long jump. 1999. Institute for sport medicine.
five questions
Five Questions

1. How many phases are there in the Long Jump?

a. 7 phases

b. 5 phases

c. 4 phases

d. none of the above

2. When landing it is the primary objective of the jumper not to: ?

a. bend his/her knees

b. stand on the TO board

c. fall back in the pit.

d. none of the above

3. The second phase of a Long Jump is called:

a. landing

b. approach

c. take-off (TO)

d. flight

five questions continue
Five Questions continue

4. What are both concentric and eccentric muscle(s) involve in Phase I- Approach?

a. soleus

b. hamstring

c. rectus femoris

d. gluteus maximus

e all of the above

5. The phases of Long Jump, in its correct order are:

a. Landing, Flight, Take-off and Approach

b. Take-off, Landing, Approach, and Flight

c. Approach, Flight, Take-off and Landing

d. Approach, Take-off, Flight and Landing