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E UROPEAN CO NSTRUCTION IN SERV IC E OF SOCIETY. ECO-Serve Cluster 2: Production and application of blended cements. Overview and results Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf ECO-Serve-Network; Status quo 01/2005. Network Steering Committee. Communication & Dissemination.

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eco serve cluster 2 production and application of blended cements

EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION

IN SERVICE OF SOCIETY

ECO-Serve Cluster 2:Production and application of blended cements

Overview and results

Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf

ECO-Serve-Network; Status quo 01/2005

structure of the network

Network Steering Committee

Communication &Dissemination

Environmentalbaseline &indicators

Management and co-ordination

The ECO-SERVE Network

Cluster 1

Cluster 3

Cluster 4

Cluster 2

Blendedcements

Aggregate &concreteproduction

Pavements

Alternativefuels andraw materials

Structure of the network

Researchactivities

objectives of the network
Objectives of the network

„The main objective of the ECO-SERVE Network

is to identify the needs of the European Construction Industry

in its endeavour towards sustainability of the

industries' products and production processes.“

  • Improve the working environment
  • Reduce the environmental impact
  • Ensure European growth and wealth by increasing the productivity, competitiveness and quality
definition blended cements
Definition: Blended cements

Cements with a reduced clinker content( 94 m.-% referring to the sum of the main andminor additional constituents)

co 2 emissions
CO2-Emissions

Replacing cement clinker by other main constitutents

is a very effective way of lowering specific fuel energy

consumption and specific CO2 emissions.

co 2 reduction from the production of blended cements
CO2 reduction from the production of blended cements

Clinker substitution

Clinker substitution

-0.093

CO2 from fuelconsumption

Finer grinding

Slag drying

0.022

-0.009

CO2 fromelectricityconsumption

0.011

CO2 from lime-stone decarbonation

-0.151

Clinker substitution

Total

-0.219

Reduction of CO2 emissions in t CO2/t cement

Substitution of clinker by granulated slag for a CEM II/B-S 32.5 with 35 % granulated slag

Source: VDZ

co 2 emissions from the production of blended cements
CO2-emissions from the production of blended cements

1,0

CEM I

CEM II/A

CEM II/B

CEM III/A

CEM III/B

0,8

CO2 conditional on electrical energy

0,6

t CO2/t cement

CO2 conditional on thermal energy

0,4

CO2 conditional raw materials

0,2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Amount in %

Source: VDZ

cement standard en 197 1
Cement standard EN 197-1

CEM I

Portland cement

CEM II

Portland-composite cement

CEM III

Blastfurnace cement

CEM IV

Pozzolanic cement

CEM V

Composite cement

cement standard en 197 19
Cement standard EN 197-1

Main constituents of cement according to EN 197-1

Portland cement clinker (K)

Granulated blast furnace slag (S)

Burnt shale (T)

  • Pozzolana
  • natural (P)
  • natural calcined (Q)
  • Limestone
  • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
  • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)
  • Fly ash
  • silicious (V)
  • calcareous (W)

Silica fume (D)

cement standard en 197 110
Cement standard EN 197-1

Main constituents of cement according to EN 197-1

Portland cement clinker (K)

Granulated blast furnace slag (S)

Burnt shale (T)

  • Pozzolana
  • natural (P)
  • natural calcined (Q)
  • Limestone
  • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
  • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)
  • Fly ash
  • silicious (V)
  • calcareous (W)

Silica fume (D)

main constituents of blended cements
Main constituents of blended cements

Portland cement clinker

Granulated blast furnace slag

Limestone

Fly ash

main constituents of blended cements sem
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)

Portland cement clinker (K)

Granulated blast furnace slag (S)

  • Limestone
  • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
  • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)
  • Fly ash
  • silicious (V)
  • calcareous (W)

Silica fume (D)

main constituents of blended cements sem14
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)

Granulated blast furnace slag

production of blended cements
Production of blended cements

Multi-chamber

mixing tower

cement standard en 197 119

Portlandcement

CEM I

Portland-compositecement

CEM II

A

B

Blastfurnacecement

CEM III

A

B

C

Pozzolaniccement

CEM IV

A

A

B

B

Compositecement

CEM V

Cement standard EN 197-1

( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

( -D, -P, -Q, -V, -W)

( -S, -P, -Q, -V)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

cement standard en 197 120

Portlandcement

CEM I

Portland-compositecement

CEM II

A

B

Blastfurnacecement

CEM III

A

B

C

Pozzolaniccement

CEM IV

A

A

B

B

Compositecement

CEM V

Cement standard EN 197-1

The letter M indicates

CEM II-cements which

contain at least two further

constituents besides clinker.

( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

( -D, -P, -Q, -V, -W)

( -S, -P, -Q, -V)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

cement standard en 197 121

Portlandcement

CEM I

Portland-compositecement

CEM II

A

B

Blastfurnacecement

CEM III

A

B

C

Pozzolaniccement

CEM IV

A

A

B

B

Compositecement

CEM V

Cement standard EN 197-1

(18-30) % S(18-30) % (P, Q, V)

(31-50) % S(31-50) % (P, Q, V)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

performance of blended cements example 1
Performance of blended cements - Example 1

Water demand of the cement

Consistency of concrete

2

Erwärmung in Kelvin

Druckfestigkeit in N/mm

Source: Ludwig 2002

performance of blended cements example 2
Performance of blended cements - Example 2

d = 0,6 m (Steel formwork), c = 330 kg/m3, w/c = 0.50, Tb,fr = TU = 20 °C

24

25

2

CEM I 32,5 R

CEM I 32,5 R

20

20

16

15

Compressive strength in MPa

Heat development in Kelvin

12

10

CEM III/A 32,5

8

5

4

CEM III/A 32,5

0

0

Erwärmung in Kelvin

0

12

24

36

48

0

12

24

36

48

Druckfestigkeit in N/mm

Concrete age in h

Concrete age in h

Source: VDZ

product standards in cen tc 51 cement and building limes

SCR

VLH III/B + CVLH IV/A + BVLH V/A + B

-

22,5

VLH 220 J/g

X

underpreparation

2004-04

Product Standards in CEN/TC 51 „Cement and building limes“

Examples

EN 197-1

Cement-Compositionspecifications and conformity criteria for common cements(27 cements)

CEM ICEM IICEM IIICEM IVCEM V

32,5 N/R 42,5 N/R 52,5 N/R

X

2000-06

EN 197-1/A1

Low heat common cements

LH 270 J/g

2004-04

EN 197-4

Low early strength blast furnace cements(3 cement types)

CEM III/ACEM III/BCEM III/C

32,5 L42,5 L52,5 L

X

2004-04

EN 14216

Cement – Composition specifications and conformity criteria for very low heatspecial cements (6 cement types)

Report

Sulphate Resisting Cement

performance of blended cements example 3
Performance of blended cements - Example 3

2,5

Wittekindt-Test(29800 mg SO4/l)after 56 days

8°C

2

20°C

1,5

Expansion in mm/m

1

0,5

0

CEM I NW/HS

CEM III/B NW/HS

Source: VDZ

performance of blended cements example 4
Performance of blended cements - Example 4

Low alkali cements

Alkalinity of the pore solution can be reduced by the use

of pozzolana or slag, due to

- lower available alkali content

- uptake of alkalis by the reaction products

questions to be answered in cluster 2
Questions to be answered in cluster 2

To what extend are there differences concerning

- Composition and used amount of blended cements in Europe,

- Existing national application rules for blended cements,

- Experience with blended cements - examples for applications.

- Kinds and quality of main constituents besides clinker for the production of blended cements in Europe.

... and why ?

expected outcome 1
Expected outcome - 1
  • Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on
  • the properties,
  • the capability,
  • the availability and
  • the application
  • of blended cements with the objectiveof a broaderapplicationof blended cements in Europe.
cluster 2 partners members

X

X

X

X

Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (BAW), Germany

E. Schwenk Zementwerke KG (SCHWENK), Germany

Titan Cement CO. S. A. (TITAN), Greece

NORCEM A.S (NORCEM), Norway

LAFARGE ROMCIM SA (LAFARGE), Romania

Verein Deutscher Zementwerke (VDZ), Germany

CTG-Italcementi Group (CTG), Italy

National Building Res. Inst. (INCERC), Romania

Cluster 2: Partners / members

Activities

Partner / Member

Research

Network

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

expected outcome 2
Expected outcome - 2
  • Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on
  • the properties,
  • the capability,
  • the availability and
  • the application
  • of blended cements with the objectiveof a broaderapplicationof blended cements in Europe.
properties and capability 1
Properties and capability - 1

Establish a comprehensive overview on relevant organisationsworking in the field of the production and applicationof blended cements (Mapping of activities and stakeholders)

 Tools: Questionnaire, Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet

properties and capability 2
Properties and capability - 2

Establish a comprehensive overview on relevant organisationsworking in the field of the production and applicationof blended cements (Mapping of activities and stakeholders)

 Tools: Questionnaire, Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet

Establish a reference list on the properties of blended cements

 Tools: Literature review, Questionnaire, Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet

expected outcome 3
Expected outcome - 3
  • Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on
  • the properties,
  • the capability,
  • the availabilityand
  • the application
  • of blended cements with the objectiveof a broaderapplicationof blended cements in Europe.
development of cem i production use

D

D

F

F

I

I

Development of CEM I production / use

Source: VDZ/CEMBUREAU

Values refer to all cements per strength class

cement cem i in cembureau countries 2001
Cement CEM I in CEMBUREAU Countries (2001)

1)

2)

1) estimated2) 2000

Source: CEMBUREAU

Values refer to all cements per country

availability of constituent materials for concrete
Availability of constituent materials for concrete
  • Besides the availablity per country the regional availability of blended cements is different.
  • Due to the availability of main constituents besides clinker, not every cement plant is able to produce any kind of blended cement in a cost-effective and ecologically way (transport etc.).
  • The same aspects have to be considered concerning the combination of cements and concrete additions.
expected outcome 4
Expected outcome - 4
  • Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on
  • the properties,
  • the capability,
  • the availability and
  • the application
  • of blended cements with the objectiveof a broaderapplicationof blended cements in Europe.
application of blended cements
Application of blended cements

Compilation and comparison of national application rules (NARs)to EN 206-1 - Concrete composition acc. to exposure classes(min. cement content,max. water cement ratio etc.) - Application rules for blended cements Co-operation with cluster 3

en 206 1 requirements related to durability exposure classes
EN 206-1: Requirements related to Durability (exposure classes)

Exposure class

Explanation

X0

Zero Risk

No risk of corrosion or attack

XF

Frost

Exposure classes forrisk ofconcrete corrosion

Freeze/thaw attack with andwithout de-icing salts

XA

Chemical Attack

Chemical attack

Mechanical abrasion

XM

Mechanicalabrasion

XC

Carbonation

Exposure classes forrisk ofsteel corrosion

Carbonation

XD

De-icing salt

Chlorides other thanfrom sea water

XS

Seawater

Chlorides from sea water

en 206 1 requirements related to exposure classes durability 1
EN 206-1: Requirements related to exposure classes (Durability) - 1
  • Due to the lack of experience on how the classification of the environmentalactionson concrete reflect local differencesin the same nominalexposure class, the specific values of these requirements for the applicableexposure classesaregiven inthe provisions valid in the place of use.
  • The requirements for each exposureclass shall be specified in terms of:– permitted types and classes of constituent materials;– maximum water/cement ratio;– minimum cement content;– minimum concrete compressive strength class (optional);and if relevant– minimum air-content of the concrete.

EN 206-1, Chapter 5.3.2

environmental actions
Environmental actions

Steel Corrosion

Carbonation

Chlorides

Others than sea watere. g. de-icing salts

Sea water

CO2

Carbonation

Controlling influencing variable

Cl-

Penetration of Cl-

Quality of the concrete cover

H2O / O2

Corrosion

Thickness

Penetration resistance

w/c

Cement type

Curing

depth of carbonation range for different cements
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

1 d in the mould, 6 d under water,  7 d 20 °C / 65 % r. H.

Source: VDZ

depth of carbonation range for different cements50
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

1 d in the mould, 6 d under water,  7 d 20 °C / 65 % r. H.

Source: VDZ

depth of carbonation range for different cements52
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

Range for CEM I – CEM III/B

Source: VDZ

application of blended cements example
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4

  • Corrosion induced by carbonation

Moisture conditions

Cyclic wet and dry – Concrete surfacessubject to water contact = e. g. facades

  • Limiting values for composition and properties of concrete and application rules for blended cements acc. to NARs to EN 206-1
depth of carbonation and risk of corrosion
Depth of carbonation and risk of corrosion

Depth of carbonation and risk of corrosion

Depth of carbonation

Risk of corrosion

External concrete surfaces

dry

under water

Concrete humidity

Exposition

XC1

XC3

XC4

XC2

XC1

Source: VDZ

depth of carbonation influence of the environment
Depth of carbonation – Influence of the environment

Decrease of the CO2-diffusionwith increasing moisture content

1

2

3

4

8

16

Storage time in years

Source: Bakker / Roessink (1991)

application of blended cements xc4 germany
Application of blended cements – XC4 - Germany

Example: Germany (DIN EN 206-1 + DIN 1045-2)

min. c in kg/m3

280

Applicablecement acc. toEN 197-1

CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,CEM II-P/Q, CEM II-V, CEM II-T, CEM II/ALL, CEM II/A-L,CEM II/A-M (S-D, S-T, S-LL, D-T, D-LL, T-LL, S-P, S-V, D-P, D-V, P-V, P-T, P-LL, V-T, V-LL),CEM II/B-M (S-D, S-T, D-T, S-P, D-P, P-T, S-V, D-V, P-V, V-T)CEM III/A, CEM III/B,CEM IV/B-P, CEM V (S-P)

max. (w/c)eq

0.60

application of blended cements xc4 swiss
Application of blended cements – XC4 - Swiss

Example: Swiss (SN EN 206-1)

min. c in kg/m3

300

Applicablecement acc. toEN 197-1

CEM I,CEM II/A-S, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-DCEM II/A-M (D-LL),CEM III/A, CEM III/B

max. (w/c)eq

0.50

application of blended cements xc4 50 years uk

80-94 % CEM I + 6-20 % fly ash

CIIA-V

65-79 % CEM I + 21-35 % fly ash

CIIB-V

CII-S

65-94 % CEM I + 6-35 % ggbs

35-64 % CEM I + 36-65 % ggbs

CIIIA

20-34 % CEM I + 66-80 % ggbs

CIIIB

CIIA-LL, CIIA-L

80-94 % CEM I + 6-20 % limestone

Application of blended cements – XC4 (50 years) - UK

Example: UK (BS 8500-1)

min. cement or combination content in kg/m3

260 - 360

Applicablecement acc. toEN 197-1

CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,CEM II-Q, CEM II-V, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-L,CEM III/A, CEM III/B

Applicablecombinations

max. (w/c)eq

0.45 – 0.65

depending on the cover of the reinforcement

application of blended cements example59
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4

Draft

application of blended cements example60
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4

Draft

effect of slag on chloride penetration
Effect of slag on chloride penetration

w/c = 0.60; c = 300 kg/m3

w/c = 0.50; c = 300 kg/m3; AEA

Source: Gehlen 2000

Source: Ludwig 2003

effect of fly ash on chloride penetration
Effect of fly ash on chloride penetration

Source: Wiens / Müller 2000

pore size distribution measured with hg penetraion

Porosity in vol.-% (cumulative)

100% (= Total porosity)

Volume of a

pore fraction

Threshold-

radius

r1

r2

1000

100

10

1

Pore radius in nm

Pore size distribution measured with Hg-penetraion
effect of fly ash and slag on the pore structure and on chloride penetration
Effect of fly ash and slag on the pore structure and on chloride penetration

Cement

FAm.-%

CEM I

0204060

CEM III/A

020

CEM III/B

0

Source: Wiens / Müller 2000

effect of limestone and slag on chloride penetration

Cement

LL in %

S in %

Effect of limestone and slag on chloride penetration

35

3

c = 320 kg/m

w/c = 0.50

30

25

/s (Age: 35d)

Range for concretes with CEM I cements

20

17,1

2

m

15,5

-12

15

12,2

in 10

9,7

9,1

10

Cl,M

D

5,7

5

0

CEM II/B-LL

CEM I

CEM II/B-LL

CEM II/B-M

CEM II/B-M

CEM II/B-S

30

-

30

25

20

-

-

-

5

10

15

35

Source: VDZ

application of blended cements example66
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3

  • Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water

Moisture conditions

Tidal, splash and spray zones

  • Limiting values for composition and properties of concrete and application rules for blended cements acc. to NARs to EN 206-1
application of blended cements xs3 germany
Application of blended cements – XS3 - Germany

Example: Germany (DIN EN 206-1 + DIN 1045-2)

min. c in kg/m3

320

Applicablecement acc. toEN 197-1

CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,CEM II-P/Q, CEM II-V, CEM II-T, CEM II/ALL, CEM II/A-L,CEM II/A-M (S-D, S-T, S-LL, D-T, D-LL, T-LL, S-P, S-V, D-P, D-V, P-V, P-T, P-LL, V-T, V-LL),CEM II/B-M (S-D, S-T, D-T, S-P, D-P, P-T, S-V, D-V, P-V, V-T)CEM III/A, CEM III/B,CEM IV/B-P, CEM V (S-P)

max. (w/c)eq

0.45

application of blended cements x d 3 swiss
Application of blended cements – XD3 - Swiss

Example: Swiss (SN EN 206-1)

min. c in kg/m3

320

Applicablecement acc. toEN 197-1

CEM I,CEM II/A-S, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-DCEM II/A-M (D-LL),CEM III/A, CEM III/B

max. (w/c)eq

0.45

application of blended cements xs3 50 years uk

max. w/c

min.strength

C40/50

0.40

C45/55

0.35

C28/35

0.50

0.45

C32/40

C35/45

0.40

C25/30

0.50

C28/35

0.45

C32/40

0.40

Application of blended cements – XS3 (50 years) - UK

Example: UK (BS 8500-1)

min. cement or combination content in kg/m3

320 - 380

Applicable cement acc. to EN 197-1

Nominal cover of thereinforcement in mm

CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S, CEM II/A-Q,CEM II/A-V, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-L

50 + Dc

45 + Dc

CEM II/B-V, CEM III/A

50 + Dc

45 + Dc

40 + Dc

CEM III/B, CEM IV/B (V)

50 + Dc

45 + Dc

40 + Dc

application of blended cements example70
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3

Draft

application of blended cements example71
Application of blended cements - Example

Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3

Draft

review of application rules
Review of application rules
  • The provisions valid in the NARs to EN 206-1 includerequirements under the assumption of an intendedworking life ofat least 50 yearsregarding - the constituent materials available in the particular region with respect to economy and ecology. - traditions and good experience with methods of construction in the particular region.
expected outcome 473
Expected outcome - 4
  • Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on
  • the properties,
  • the capability,
  • the availability and
  • the application
  • of blended cements with the objectiveof a broaderapplicationof blended cements in Europe.
germany federal motorway a 29 towards wilhelmshaven

Germany: Federal Motorway A 29 towards Wilhelmshaven

Germany: Federal Motorway A 29 towards Wilhelmshaven

Year of construction:

Component:

Cement type:

Amount:

1979

Concrete Road

Portland Slag Cement (CEM II/B-S)

Amount: 18.000 m3

germany federal motorway a 60 kylltal bridge

Germany: FederalMotorway A 60 Kylltal Bridge

Germany: FederalMotorway A 60 Kylltal Bridge

Year of construction:

Component:

Cement type:

Amount:

1995 - 1999

Arch and Column

Portland Slag Cement(CEM II/B-S 42,5 )

Amount: 30.000 m3