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Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements PowerPoint Presentation
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Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

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Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

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  1. Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

  2. Oldest Concrete Found To Date • dates around 7000 BC — a lime concrete floor found during the construction of a road at Yiftah El in Galilee, Israel.

  3. Beginning of the Industry • Portland cement was first patented in 1824 • Named after the natural limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel

  4. Portland Cement First Produced • North America 1871— Coplay, Pennsylvania • Canada 1889 — Hull, Quebec

  5. Primary Components of Raw Materials Necessary for Portland Cement Manufacture • Calcium • Silica • Alumina • Iron

  6. Quarry

  7. Traditional Manufacture of Portland Cement 1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.) size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.

  8. Raw materials are ground to powder and blended. or 2. Raw materials are ground, mixed with water to form slurry, and blended.

  9. 3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker.

  10. 4. Clinker with gypsum is ground into portland cement and shipped.

  11. Dry Process Manufacture of Portland Cement 1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.) size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.

  12. Raw materials are ground, to powder and blended.

  13. 3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into clinker. Note four stage preheater, flash furnaces, and shorter kiln.

  14. 4. Clinker with gypsum is ground into portland cement and shipped

  15. Clinker Gypsum

  16. Process of Clinker Production (1)

  17. (2)

  18. (3)

  19. Portland Cement By definition — a hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition.

  20. Types of Portland Cement ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85) I Normal IA Normal, air-entraining II Moderate sulfate resistance IIAModerate sulfate resistance, air-entraining III High early strength IIIA High early strength, air-entraining IV Low heat of hydration V High sulfate resistance

  21. Performance of Concretes Made with Different Cements in Sulfate Soil

  22. Performance of Concretes Made with Different W/C-Ratios in Sulfate Soil

  23. Type II & Type V Sulfate Resistant Cements

  24. Outdoor Sulfate Test Type V Cement W/C-ratio = 0.65 Type V Cement W/C-ratio = 0.39

  25. Moderate and Low Heat Cements

  26. Type IIIHigh Early Strength Cements

  27. White Portland Cement

  28. Blended Hydraulic CementASTM C 595 General — a hydraulic cement consisting of two or more inorganic constituents, which contribute to the strength gaining properties of cement.

  29. Blended Cements • Clinker • Gypsum • Portland cement • Fly ash • Slag • Silica Fume • Calcined Clay

  30. Blended Hydraulic Cements ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240) Type IS Portland blast-furnace slag cement Type IP Portland-pozzolan cement Type P Portland-pozzolan cement Type I(PM) Pozzolan-modified portland cement Type S Slag cement Type I(SM) Slag-modified portland cement

  31. Hydraulic Cements ASTM C 1157 • First performance specification for hydraulic cements • Cements meet physical performance test requirements rather than prescriptive restrictions on ingredients or cement chemistry as in other cement specifications. • Provides for six types

  32. Hydraulic Cement ASTM C 1157 Type GU General use Type HE High early strength Type MS Moderate sulfate resistance Type HS High sulfate resistance Type MH Moderate heat of hydration Type LH Low heat of hydration

  33. Masonry Cements Type N — for Type O and Type N mortars and with portland cement for mortar Types S and M Type S — for Type S mortar Type M — for Type M mortar

  34. Stucco using Masonry or Plastic Cements

  35. Finely-Ground Cements Grout penetration in soil

  36. Expansive Cement Concrete

  37. Drinking Water Applications

  38. Chemical Compounds of Portland Cement

  39. Hydration Products