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Core values in athletics

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  1. Core values in athletics Professor Gunnar Breivik Norwegian University of Sports

  2. Introduction • Background - sport in a changing world • What are the basic values in sport? • Values in athletics compared with other sports - some empirical data • The core values in athletics • Athletics as a paradigm sport compared with other new paradigms - youth sports, extreme games

  3. IBackgroundSport in a changing world

  4. Development • Unity of sport until the 1970s • Elite sport becomes professional, commercial, new technology, sports as entertainment • Postmodern trends, new activities, new values, subcultures and new contexts

  5. Differentiation of physical activities and sports Muscle and power Risk sport Youth sport Elite sport General competitive sport Rehabilitation Aerobic, fitness Jogging Yoga, meditation

  6. Training and years of education Percenttraining 1-4 times a week

  7. Training and economic income, age 36-50 years

  8. Percent of people who are involved in mass activities

  9. Organizational contexts of activity

  10. Motives for training

  11. Sport and society interaction • Marxist theories - sport as part of the superstructure, sport as lagging behind • Sport as the perfect expression of the American capitalistic society - Harry Edwards • Sport as a model for society - the idea of competition, fairness and rewards - von Krockow

  12. 1. Society and its values influence sports in good and in bad ways (External values) 2. Sport and its values influence society in good and in bad ways (Internal values) Sport and society Sport Society Society 2 1

  13. 1. Individuals choose sports with values they like (Active match person- environment) 2. Sport and its specific values influence involved persons (Passive match person -environment) The individual and sport Individual Sport Individual 2 1

  14. A dynamic view • Sports are integrated in historical societies with certain practices and values • Different sports attract and form different persons and build different subcultures in society • There are differences in sport ethos between different sports, but also common elements

  15. Theories - general views • Inglehart - post-materialism • Elias - quest for excitement • Lasch - the culture of narcissism • Bourdieu - social distinction • Foucault - discipline • Giddens - structuration • marxist theories - hegemony

  16. IIWhat are the basic values in sport?

  17. Values in philosophy • Platonic, idealistic view: there are objective and eternal values (Popper’s World 3) • Cultural, historical view: values are dependent upon the social construction of reality (Berger & Luckman, MacIntyre) • Subjective, individualistic view: values express individual preferences (decision theory, utilitarianism)

  18. Ethical theories3 paradigms • Norm - based (deontological theories, Kant) • Utility - based (utilitarianism, Mill, Hare) • Virtue - based (virtue ethics, Aristotle, MacIntyre)

  19. Rationality Universal Science Progress Understanding Local, relative Discourses Different life forms From modernity towards postmodernity? Modernity Postmodernity

  20. Values inside sport • Intrinsic values - what is valuable in its own right (intrinsically good) • Extrinsic values - what is valuable as means to other ends (extrinsically good)

  21. Intrinsic values - British sport Sport promotes moral values: • honesty • loyalty • fair play • endurance • pain tolerance • generosity

  22. Intrinsic values - todayExamples • Knowledge, moral values, creativity, self-expression (Arnold) • Harmony, intuitive knowledge (Herrigel) • Play, freedom, individuality (Morgan) • Challenge, uncertainty (Suits) • Expression, beauty, art (Wertz) • Ethics, moderation, professionalism (Zeigler)

  23. Pleasure - play, intrigue, delight Motor skill - confidence, excellence Fitness - bodily light-ness, endurance, strength Knowledge - enlightenment Pleasure - means to better health etc. Skill - means to better play Fitness - means to all of life’s achievements and pleasures Knowledge - means for enlightened practice Kretchmar: Intrinsic and extrinsic values EXTRINSIC VALUES INTRINSIC VALUES

  24. Elite athletes’ view of values in sport

  25. Discussion I • The top level athlete lives in a tension between the amateur and professional role model. Few are fully professional • Full time training and poverty, or • Good economy and too little time to training Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97

  26. Discussion II • Heavy training and tough competitions - lead to injuries, pains and health problems • But health is the most important thing in life • A schizophrenic view: Sport is not a part of normal life, it is a “time out” from normal life Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97

  27. Discussion III • Sport as a “time out” with its own logic and rules explains why success is the most important factor for joy in sport, but not important for happiness in life • Sport is not a part of “ordinary life” • As sport becomes professionalized and a work this notion is impossible to uphold. There is no “normal life” after sport Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97

  28. IIIAthletics and other sportsAn empirical study of values

  29. Norwegian Monitor • 3000 persons interviewed - every second year • A representative sample of the population above 15 years of age • Demographic variables, values, attitudes and behavior • Various areas of life, including sport practice

  30. Modern values Materialistic values Idealistic values Traditional values

  31. IV III • risk • emotions • urban • consumption • law contempt • spontaneity • non-religious • technology • anti-health • hedonism • status • materialism II I

  32. IV • anti-authority III • equality • tolerance • individuality • novelty • self- • realization • polysensualism • altruism • environment • public • egalitarian • anti-status • dense II I

  33. IV III • anti- • materialism • private • health • religion • asceticism • rigidity • puritanism • rural • patriotism • lawabiding • investment II • security I

  34. IV III • non-egalitarian • private • egoism • industrialism • not selfrealization • scattered • anti-technology • tradition • authority II • trad. sex roles I • conformity • intolearnce • rationality

  35. boxing • squash • judo/karate • climbing • telemark • body • building • motor sport • sailing • skating • tennis • alpine • skiing • cross country skiing • soccer • gymnastics • handball • swimming • icehockey • orienteering • running • golf materialism • hiking idealism traditional

  36. ATHLETICS 99

  37. ATHLETICS 99

  38. ATHLETICS 97 A

  39. CHANGE-ORIENTED Modern Postproductive Consumption Hedonism Postindustrial Tolerance Individuality OUTER- ORIENTED Materialist INNER- ORIENTED Idealist IV III II I Preindustrial Religion, asceticism. family Industrial Authority Conformity STABILITY-ORIENTED Traditional

  40. CHANGE-ORIENTED Modern Modern youth sport, modern top level sport Modern mass sport IV III OUTER- ORIENTED Materialist INNER- ORIENTED Idealist I II Upper class amateur sport, Muscular Christianity, 19th century England Competitive sport, professional sport 20 th century STABILITY-ORIENTED Traditional

  41. Tensions • Sport values have been frozen in quadrant I (The official sport ideology) • Sport values have been opposed from left side sport critics, quadrant III • Sport values have been implicitly developed by the youth avantgarde and commercial elite sport, quadrant IV

  42. IVCore values in athletics

  43. Physical games baseball, football… Elements of skill, strategy and chance To have an exciting game Children’s play, games and circus Individual competitions - athletics Elements of skill (and strategy) No chance! Hard competition to decide who is best Hunting, war and scientific tests Two types of sport

  44. Sport as contest Chance factors Betting, uncertainty Entertainment Cockfight, horse racing, boxing Sport as test Skill factors Who is the best Suspense Athletics, gymnastics, swimming Two types of logic in sport

  45. The scientific experiment remove chance factors complete control the more complex the experiment, the more difficult the task Idealtypus “Pure test of skills” THE ATHLETE The circus, entertainment chance factors do the “impossible” the ability to impress be unpredictable entertain Idealtypus “Exciting game” THE PUBLIC Two ideal types

  46. Causation • Beliefs are true if they are caused in the right way by the conditions they represent • Risks are taken if they enter in the right and relevant way, and can be coped with or mastered • Winning should be based on the relevant skills and be the result of the sport relevant behavior of competing athletes. No chance!

  47. Justice and equality in competitions • Pure procedural justice - as equal conditions as possible during competitions • No chance factors - (slippery ground, stones, wind bursts etc.) • All equipment - clothes and shoes should be produced by the same manufacturer for all the participants

  48. Values inherent in sport competitions • Mastery, coping • performance, perfection • winning, success • records • beyond limits • CITIUS ALTIUS FORTIUS

  49. Values in athletics • Motor abilities • technical skills • strength,power • speed • endurance • specialization • many-sidedness (decathlon)

  50. Specator values • The good game • the tough and even competition • the sweet tension • the ultimate performance • identification • peak experience • perfection on earth