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FLED 415- Language Transfer. Code Switching / Code Mixing. Çağla Nikbay B. Betül Tüzüner Esra Şen Aslıhan Emirmustafaoğlu Sümeyra Yörür Şeyda Baharoğlu. Muthusamy P., 2009 Communicative Functions and Reasons for Code - switching : A Malaysian Perspective

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code switching code mixing

FLED 415- Language Transfer

CodeSwitching / CodeMixing

Çağla Nikbay

B. Betül Tüzüner

Esra Şen

Aslıhan Emirmustafaoğlu


Şeyda Baharoğlu


Muthusamy P., 2009


A MalaysianPerspective

  • Eldrigde J., 1996

Code-Switchingin a TurkishSecondarySchool

related topics
  • Whatdoescode-switchingmean?
  • Thedifferencebetweencode-switcingandcode-mixing?
  • Thecommunicativefunctionsandreasons of code-switching
  • Thestudiesbased on code-switching
  • Is code-switchingaccepted as a purposefulorrandomphenomenon?
  • Is it possibletoutilizecode-switchingforpedagogicalaim?
communicative functions and reasons for code switching a malaysian perspective
CommunicativeFunctionsandReasonsforCode-switching:A MalaysianPerspective

Muthusamy P., 2009


Code- switching is the concurrent use of more than one-language.

  • Multilinguals, who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other.
code switching code mixing6

Code- switching and code-mixing are used interchangably; however, there is a difference:

  • Code-mixing refers to the change from one language to another within the same utterance in terms of lexical, grammatical and morphological aspect.

e.g. Bugün add-drop dönemi başlıyor.

Yarın online kayıt sistemi açılıyor.

Senin sunum yapacağin part burası mı?


Code-swithingreferstothechangefromonelanguagetoanother not in thesameutterance; but in thestretch of conversation.

e.g. Researher Ana CeliaZentellagives an exampledialogueamongPuerto Rican Spanish-EnglishBilinguals:

Lolita: Oh, I couldstaywith Ana?

Marta: — but youcould ask papiandmamitoseeifyoucouldcomedown.

Lolita: OK.

Marta: Ana, if I leave her herewouldyousend her upstairswhenyouleave?

ACZ: I’lltellyouexactlywhen I havetoleave, at ten o’clock. Y son lasnueve y cuarto. ("Andit’s nine fifteen.")

Marta:Lolita, tevoy a dejarcon Ana. ("I’mgoingtoleaveyouwith Ana.") Thankyou, Ana.

commnicative functions of code switching
CommnicativeFunctions of Code-Switching
  • Lack of Facility
  • Lack of Register
  • Mood of the Speaker
  • To emphasize a point
  • Habitual Experience
  • Semantic significance
  • To show identity with a group
  • To address a different audience
  • Pragmatic reasons
  • To attract attention

(Malik, 1994)

1 lack of facility
1. Lack of Facility:

Bilinguals often code switch:

  • when they cannot find an appropriate expression or
  • when the language of conversation does not have the particular word needed to carry on the conversation smoothly.

e.g. There is a lexical item “social drinker” in English that is unacceptable in a Malay situation and their language does not have a translation equivalence for this word. Hence, the phrase social drinker is directly borrowed and used as an instance of phrase level mixing as in the following example:

!!!Saya difahamkan bahawa OKS jarang minum, hanya seorangsocialdrinker.

[I understand that OKS seldom drinks, he is only a social drinker]

2 lack of register
2. Lack of Register

Bilinguals often code-switch:

  • When they are not equally competent in two languages


  • when they do not know the terms in two languages.

e.g. Especially from L2 to L3:

Instead of “Zwölf” in German--- using twelve

War-was habe- have

3 mood of the speaker
3. Mood of theSpeaker
  • When the speaker is in the right state of mind, he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in the base language; but, they may code-switch to the language which is available the speakers.
    • they are tired or angry,
    • they have a disturbed mind.

e.g. L1:Turkish/L2: English speakers tend to switching to Turkish in such a condition:

Yani, evet, of, işte, şey…

study code switching in classroom

Study: Code-switching in classroom

As a teacher, in whatsituationsandforwhatreasons can wecode-switch in theclassroom???

Accordingtothestudyconducted in JaffnaSchool, followingfourfunctions of classroommanagementarecited in a Tamil-languagebasedstudentsallowingfortheswitchingtoEnglish at somepoints.

1 opening the class
1. Openingtheclass
  • Tamil is usedtopreparetheclassforthelessonbygivingthenecessarydirections in regardtoarrangement of theroom, whileEnglish is usedforthelessonproper.


T: piLLayaL, katirakaLaiVaTTamaaipooTunkoo, sattampooTaamal, ketiyaapooTunkoo. Turn to page forty for today’s lesson.

[Children, arrange your chairs into a circle without making noise. Arrange quickly….]

2 requesting help
2. RequestingHelp
  • Anykind of helpstudentsneedtoperform an activityareposed in Tamil, whereasthetasksthemselvesareinformed in English.


  • S: (reads)The red car belongs to // (to T)iteNNa, Miss, eppiTicolluratu, (spells) e-n-o-s-h-a?

[What is this, Miss, how do I say this?]

Whataboutthe role of thisfunction in theclassrooms in


3 managing discipline
3. Managingdiscipline
  • StudentsswitchtoTamilwhenteywanttocomplaintotheteacheraboutany problem withtheirclassmates.


S: Teacher, look at Selma. Beni rahatsız ediyor.

( thesecondsentence is more-complextoutter. Therefore, thestudentswitchthewholesentenceintoTurkish.)

4 teachers encouragements compliments
4. Teachers’ encouragements & compliments
  • TheteacherswitchestoTamiltoencourage a responsefromstudents. Theswitchperforms an affectivefunction.


  • T: What is the past tense of “swim”? // come on. //ennapiLLayal, ituteriyaataa? Poona vakuppilaiconnaniinkal.
  • [……….What, children, you don’t know this? You told me that in the last class]

Furthermore, thefunctions of codeswitchingforcontenttransmissionarefour:

5. Reviewing a lesson

6. Defining a word

7. Explaining a concept

8. Negotiatingculturalrelevance

  • It is importanttonotethatstudentsweresilentwhentheteacherasked a question in English. On theotherhand, therewere a lot of responseswhen it wasposed in Tamil. Therefore, theteacherusesthisopportunitytointroducetheEnglishvocabularyrelatedtothelesson.
  • Thestudy has shownthathabitualexpressionwhich is relatedtopsychologicalaspect of thebehavior as themainreasonforcodeswitching. Furthermore, lack of registercompetence is anothercontributingfactor.
  • On theotherhandsociopoliticalsituations in Malaysiaexertspressure on theTamilspeakingcommunity in itsefforttomaintainitsownethnicandlinguisticidentity.
according to the our own study
  • Participants??
  • Questionnaire??
  • Video-record??
  • Result??


  • John Elridge’s article is about the code-switching of young learners in a Turkish secondary school.
  • No evidence to support the notion that limiting the use of mother tongue improves learning efficiency.
  • In contrary, the article shows that code switching in the classroom has a pedagogical orientation and is highly purposeful.
  • The author gives this definition: Code-switching may be briefly defined as the alternation between two (or more) languages, which is not a random phenomenon but a purposeful activity.


  • In general there is a concern among teachers that if students apply to code-switching, there is a problem in learning thesecondlanguage.
  • 'If the students start speaking in their own languagewithout yourpermission . . . it generally means that something is wrongwith the lesson.‘Willis (1981).
  •  ‘Progress in the second language is facilitated if only one code is used in
  • the classroom.’ Cummins & Swain (1986).
  • HOWEVER, this is not the case!! There are pedagogical implications for code-switching, which is not a counter-productive phenomenon.


Where  Deniz High School

To whom  elementary & lower intermediate level learners aged 11-13

The aims of this study is to find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the relationship between the level of the student and his or

her use of code-switching strategies?

2. What are the general purposes and specific functions of code-switching?

3. How do the code-switchers themselves view the phenomenon?

4. Are there certain types of speech event in which code-switching does

not take place, and if so, with what consequences?



  • Code-switching and level:
  • Analysis of the study shows that it seems to be no relationship between level of achievement in the target language and the use of code-switching strategies.
  • Namely, high achieving students code-switched just as regularly as other students.
  • The greater the competence in thelanguage X the less the learner will switch to the native code.
  • General purposes of code-switching:
  • 77 % of all instances of code-switching  classroom tasks & learningobjectives
  • The rest comments directed by students to teacher (not taskorientation)
  • The avoidance strategy was extremely rare. That is to say , students didn’t switch to their mother tongue to talk about something else entirely.

Specific functions of code-switching:

The main problem in analysing code-switching in functional terms is that

many switches may be either multi-functional, or open to different functional interpretations. BUT, we may say that students code-switchin the classroom from one or more of the following motivations:

a. Equivalence:

e.g: Teacher, cave it means in Turkish mağara?  the required item

in the target code was simply unknown. (cave)

b. Floor-holding:

e.g: Where did Robert? ... ondansonra? . . . neydi?

T: Was this done on your own?

L: Tekbaşıma ... on my own.

It is not the discussion of “knowing “ a language, it is actually accessing “learned” information.

Code-switching a stopgap (temporary measure).

c metalanguage
  • Although tasks are performed in the target language, the comments, evaluation and talk about the tasks are performed in the native language.

e.g. T: What did you at the weekend?

S: Ne yaptım… I went to the zoowithmyfriends.

d reiteration
  • Themessage is clarifiedandreinforcedrepeating it in thenativelanguage as themessage is not understood.

e.g. S1: Flowers… he?…

T: Flowers.

S2: Flowers… Çiçek.

e group membership
e. GroupMembership
  • Code-switching is a part of groupidentiy.

e.g. Mybestfrend-im

I likebeingcorrected, yanibecause I learnyani.

f conflict control
f. ConflictControl
  • Ifthere is a potential of conflictwithadresee, thenusethesecondlanguage!!!

e.g. liarinstead of “yalancı”

no instead of “hayır”

g alignment and disalignment
g. Alignment and disalignment
  • Thespeakershouldeitheralignhim/herselftotheconversationtakingplaceorseekwaystodisalign it.

e.g. S1: What did you do yesterday?

S2: Nedensiz ... Why are you ...

S3: Bequite.

S4: Please be quiet, friends.

code switching in oral examinations
CodeSwitching in Oral Examinations
  • Thefactthatthecode-swithcing at thislevel is NOT a result of avoidance but a strategy of communication is alsoprovedby oral examinations.
  • No evidenceforgoodlearnerscodeswithless, badlearnerscodeswitchmore.
an example
An example:
  • T: Now I just want you to tell me what you're going to do in your

summer holiday.

  • S: (3.0) er (5.0) In the summer I went to Karaburun (1.0) er (2.0) in

Karaburun I er (4.0) swim in the sea (1.0) erm (4.0) erm (5.0) er I

eat fish er (2.0) and er potato er chips.

  • T: And have you got a summer house in Karaburun?
  • S: No (4.0) er one day er
  • T: Hmm?
  • S: (4.0) er (2.0) and I er we went to Kusada§i, Ku§ada§i in Ku§ada§i
  • (3.0) er (1.0) in Ku§ada§i we (3.0) summer house (7.0).