FLED 415- Language Transfer. Code Switching / Code Mixing. Çağla Nikbay B. Betül Tüzüner Esra Şen Aslıhan Emirmustafaoğlu Sümeyra Yörür Şeyda Baharoğlu. Muthusamy P., 2009 Communicative Functions and Reasons for Code - switching : A Malaysian Perspective
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Code-Switchingin a TurkishSecondarySchool
Muthusamy P., 2009
Code- switching is the concurrent use of more than one-language.
Code- switching and code-mixing are used interchangably; however, there is a difference:
e.g. Bugün add-drop dönemi başlıyor.
Yarın online kayıt sistemi açılıyor.
Senin sunum yapacağin part burası mı?
Code-swithingreferstothechangefromonelanguagetoanother not in thesameutterance; but in thestretch of conversation.
e.g. Researher Ana CeliaZentellagives an exampledialogueamongPuerto Rican Spanish-EnglishBilinguals:
Lolita: Oh, I couldstaywith Ana?
Marta: — but youcould ask papiandmamitoseeifyoucouldcomedown.
Marta: Ana, if I leave her herewouldyousend her upstairswhenyouleave?
ACZ: I’lltellyouexactlywhen I havetoleave, at ten o’clock. Y son lasnueve y cuarto. ("Andit’s nine fifteen.")
Marta:Lolita, tevoy a dejarcon Ana. ("I’mgoingtoleaveyouwith Ana.") Thankyou, Ana.
Bilinguals often code switch:
e.g. There is a lexical item “social drinker” in English that is unacceptable in a Malay situation and their language does not have a translation equivalence for this word. Hence, the phrase social drinker is directly borrowed and used as an instance of phrase level mixing as in the following example:
!!!Saya difahamkan bahawa OKS jarang minum, hanya seorangsocialdrinker.
[I understand that OKS seldom drinks, he is only a social drinker]
Bilinguals often code-switch:
e.g. Especially from L2 to L3:
Instead of “Zwölf” in German--- using twelve
War-was habe- have
e.g. L1:Turkish/L2: English speakers tend to switching to Turkish in such a condition:
Yani, evet, of, işte, şey…
As a teacher, in whatsituationsandforwhatreasons can wecode-switch in theclassroom???
Accordingtothestudyconducted in JaffnaSchool, followingfourfunctions of classroommanagementarecited in a Tamil-languagebasedstudentsallowingfortheswitchingtoEnglish at somepoints.
T: piLLayaL, katirakaLaiVaTTamaaipooTunkoo, sattampooTaamal, ketiyaapooTunkoo. Turn to page forty for today’s lesson.
[Children, arrange your chairs into a circle without making noise. Arrange quickly….]
[What is this, Miss, how do I say this?]
Whataboutthe role of thisfunction in theclassrooms in
S: Teacher, look at Selma. Beni rahatsız ediyor.
( thesecondsentence is more-complextoutter. Therefore, thestudentswitchthewholesentenceintoTurkish.)
Furthermore, thefunctions of codeswitchingforcontenttransmissionarefour:
5. Reviewing a lesson
6. Defining a word
7. Explaining a concept
ELRIDGE J., 1996
Where Deniz High School
To whom elementary & lower intermediate level learners aged 11-13
The aims of this study is to find answers to the following questions:
1. What is the relationship between the level of the student and his or
her use of code-switching strategies?
2. What are the general purposes and specific functions of code-switching?
3. How do the code-switchers themselves view the phenomenon?
4. Are there certain types of speech event in which code-switching does
not take place, and if so, with what consequences?
The main problem in analysing code-switching in functional terms is that
many switches may be either multi-functional, or open to different functional interpretations. BUT, we may say that students code-switchin the classroom from one or more of the following motivations:
e.g: Teacher, cave it means in Turkish mağara? the required item
in the target code was simply unknown. (cave)
e.g: Where did Robert? ... ondansonra? . . . neydi?
T: Was this done on your own?
L: Tekbaşıma ... on my own.
It is not the discussion of “knowing “ a language, it is actually accessing “learned” information.
Code-switching a stopgap (temporary measure).
e.g. T: What did you at the weekend?
S: Ne yaptım… I went to the zoowithmyfriends.
e.g. S1: Flowers… he?...flowers…
S2: Flowers… Çiçek.
I likebeingcorrected, yanibecause I learnyani.
e.g. liarinstead of “yalancı”
no instead of “hayır”
e.g. S1: What did you do yesterday?
S2: Nedensiz ... Why are you ...
S4: Please be quiet, friends.
Karaburun I er (4.0) swim in the sea (1.0) erm (4.0) erm (5.0) er I
eat fish er (2.0) and er potato er chips.