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Chronic Tonsillitis Pharyngitis PowerPoint Presentation
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Chronic Tonsillitis Pharyngitis

Chronic Tonsillitis Pharyngitis

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Chronic Tonsillitis Pharyngitis

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    1. Chronic Tonsillitis & Pharyngitis By Adnan AL-Maaitah

    3. Chronic Tonsillitis Halitosis due to crushing of tonsilloliths More resistant to antibiotics Obstruction to breathing snoring, sleep apnea Blockage of Eustachian Canal Dysphagia Constants feeling of fullness and pain in the throat Accompany multiple infections May be with peritonsilar abscess Persistent tender cervical nodes

    4. Tonsillolith

    7. Tonsillectomy Surgical removal of tonsils or a tonsil One of the most common surgical procedures among children Controversy regarding indications for surgery

    8. Tonsillectomy / Indications The American Academy of OtolaryngologyHead and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) publishes clinical indicators for surgical procedures: Absolute indications Enlarged tonsils that cause upper airway obstruction, severe dysphagia, sleep disorders, or cardiopulmonary complications Peritonsillar abscessthat is unresponsive to medical management and drainage documented by surgeon, unless surgery is performed during acute stage Tonsillitis resulting in febrile convulsions Tonsils requiring biopsy to define tissue pathology Relative indications Three or more tonsil infections per year despite adequate medical therapy Persistent foul taste orbreathdue to chronic tonsillitis that is not responsive to medical therapy Chronic or recurrent tonsillitis in a streptococcal carrier not responding to beta-lactamase-resistant antibiotics Unilateral tonsil hypertrophy that is presumed to be neoplastic Other indications: cleft palate, carrier to TB or diphtheriaOther indications: cleft palate, carrier to TB or diphtheria

    9. Tonsillectomy/Contraindications Bleeding diathesis Poor anesthetic risk or uncontrolled medical illness Anemia Acute infection (tonsillitis: wait 3 weeks) Peritonsillar abscess

    11. Tonsillectomy/Procedure Patient lying flat on their backs, with the shoulders elevated on a small pillow so that the neck is hyperextended the so-called 'Rose' position. Tonsil is held by forceps and removed by blunt scalpel or electrocautery Bleeding is stopped with electrocautery

    15. Tonsillectomy/Postop. Painful give adequate analgesia Hydration Tonsil beds maybe covered with white or yellowish exudate (up to 2 weeks) normal, not pus Complications: Bleeding: primary, reactionary (first 24Hr), secondary (3-7 days) Sepsis Chest complications Otitis media Peritonsillar abcess

    18. Pharynx/Anatomy The musculomembranous cavity behind the nasal cavities, mouth and larynx communicating with them and with the esophagus. Composed of skeletal muscles lined by mucous membrane. Respiratory and digestive function Divided into: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Hypopharynx (Laryngopharynx)

    19. Pharynx/Anatomy

    20. Pharyngitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying part of the pharynx One of the most common causes of absence from school or work Vast majority due to viruses More common in children (peak 4 7 yrs) Affects all races and both sexes equally Usually associated with URTI

    21. Pharyngitis Causes: Viral: rhinovirus, adenovirus, EBV, HSV, influenza virus Bacterial: GABHS Other: allergy, trauma, toxins, neoplasia Predisposing factors: Smoking (including passive) Mouth breathing Rhinosinusitis Periodontal disease Viral: self limiting Bac.: self limiting, concerns about suppurative and non-suppurative complicationsViral: self limiting Bac.: self limiting, concerns about suppurative and non-suppurative complications

    22. Pharyngitis Pathophysiology: Viral and bacterial directly invades the mucosa causing local inflammatory response. Some viruses causes inflammation to the mucosa secondary to nasal secretion

    23. Pharyngitis Symptoms: Sore throat is the main CCx Fever, headache Acute: rapid onset, short duration, with dysphagia and malaise Chronic: persistent, mild soreness, dryness. Eliminate underlying cause. Signs: Edema and erythema of the pharynx Exudate can be present Edema does not correlate with the degree of sore throatEdema does not correlate with the degree of sore throat

    24. Pharyngitis Bacterial Exposure to known carrier High fever, chills, headache, abdominal pain Painful cervical adenopathy Rare pathogen < 2 yrs Viral Involvement of other mucous membrane With sneezing, rhinorrhea and cough

    27. Phryngitis/Complications Usually self limiting Primary concern in children (3 18 yrs) is that untreated GABHS may cause rheumatic fever Adjacent organs: otitis media, sinusitis, peritonsillar abscess Acute respiratory inflammation Acute glomerulonephritis Toxic shock syndrome Mortality due to airway obstruction (rare)

    29. Pharyngitis/DDx Streptococcal pharyngitis Non-infectious pharyngitis Peritonsilar abscess Pharyngeal candidia Diphtheria

    30. Pharyngitis/RRx Symptomatic Rest, oral-fluids, and salt-water gargling are the main supportive measures Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) is the DOC in high pain and fever Antibiotics are indicated for clinically suspected and culture or antigen verified GAS infection. Prevent rheumatic fever if given 9 days from onset