medications
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Medications

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 44

Medications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 262 Views
  • Uploaded on

Medications. Shurouq Qadose 22/3/2008. Medication; is a substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or relief of a symptom or for prevention of disease. Prescription; is a written direction for the preparation and administration of a drug.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Medications' - RexAlvis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
medications

Medications

Shurouq Qadose

22/3/2008

slide2
Medication; is a substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or relief of a symptom or for prevention of disease.

Prescription; is a written direction for the preparation and administration of a drug.

Pharmacology; is the study of the effect of drugs on living organisms.

Pharmacist; is the person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs.

The physician is legally responsible for prescribing medications on a prescription

TheNurse is responsible to administer the medication correctly.

slide3
Legal aspects of drug administration

Mechanisms of Drugs Action

- Onset of action: The time after administration when the body initially responds to the drug

- Drug half – life (elimination half – life): The time required for the elimination process to reduce the concentration of the drug to one – half what it was at initial administration.

slide4
Peak level; or highest plasma concentration of the drug should be measured when absorption is complete

Trough level; is the point when the drug is at its lowest concentration and this specimen is usually drawn in the 30 minutes interval before the next dose.

slide5
Pharmacodynamics; is the process by which a drug changes the body (e.g., alters cell physiology).

Pharmacokinetic; is the study of the movement of drug molecules in the body in relation to drug’s absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.

slide6
Absorption; is the process by which a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to the bloodstream. It is influenced by several factors:
    • Route of administration; the injection medications are usually absorbed more rapidly than oral medications
    • Drug solubility; liquid medication are absorbed more rapidly than solid preparations
    • PH; the form in which the drug is found depend on the pt of the environment; acidic drugs are well absorbed in the stomach.
slide8
Local conditions at the site of administration; a pt with burn would have poor absorption from intramuscular injection, also food in the stomach can delay the absorption of some medications.
  • Drug dosage; a loading dose or a large than normal dose is usually given when the pt is in acute distress and it is necessary to achieve the maximum therapeutics effects as quick as possible.
slide9
- Distribution; is the transportation of a drug from its site of absorption to its site of action. When a drug enters the blood stream, it is carried to the most vascular organs- that is, liver, kidneys, and brain.

- Biotransformation; also called detoxification or metabolism, is a process by which a drug is converted to a less active form. Biotransformation may be altered if a person is very young, is older, or has an unhealthy liver.

slide10
-Excretion; is the process by which metabolites and drugs are eliminated from the body. Most metabolites are eliminated by the kidneys in the urine; however, some are excreted in the feces, the breath, perspiration, saliva, and breast milk.
factors affecting medication action
Factors affecting medication action
  • Developmental factors; during pregnancy, drugs taken during pregnancy pose a risk throughout the pregnancy, but pose the highest risk during the first trimester, due to the formation of vital organs and functions of the fetus during this time.
slide12
Most drugs are contraindicated because of their possible adverse effects on the fetus and certain drugs referred to as teratogenic drugs are known to have potential to cause developmental defects in the embryo or fetus. Infant usually require small dosages because of their body size and the immaturity of their organs, especially the liver and kidneys.
slide13
Weight; nurses should know the weight especially before the operation in order to calculate the correct dose for drugs.
  • Gender; differences in the way men and women respond to drugs are chiefly related to the distribution of body fat and fluid and hormonal differences.
  • Cultural, Ethnic, and Genetic factors
slide14
Psychological factors; a client’s expectations about what a drug can do can affect the response to the medication. For example, a client who believes that codeine is ineffective as an analgesic may experience no relief from pain after it is given.
slide15
Illness and disease; the presence of a disease affect the action of drugs. For example, aspirin can reduce the body temperature of a feverish client but has no effect on the body temperature of a client without fever. The liver is the primary organ for drug breakdown and the pathologic conditions that involve the liver may slow down metabolism
slide16
Environment; for example receiving medication in an environment that lack of oxygen effects drug reaction, also pt who receives pain medication or sedative in a busy, noisy environment may not benefit as fully as if the environment were quiet and peaceful.
slide17
Time of administration; the presence of food in the stomach delays the absorption of oral administration of medication, some medications should be given with the food to prevent gastric irritation.
  • Diet; nutrients can affect the action of a medication, for example, vitamin K found in green leafy vegetables can counteract the effect of an anticoagulant such as warfarin.
routes of administration
Routes of administration

1- Oral Medication

Advantages:-

  • Absorption of oral medication occurs in stomach & small intestine
  • Most commonly used, most convenient and comfortable and safe
slide19
Disadvantages:-
  • Unpleasant taste of the drugs
  • Irritation of the gastric mucosa
  • Irregular absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, slow absorption
  • May harm the client’s teeth
  • Inappropriate for clients with nausea or vomiting
  • Sometimes pt hides medication in the mouth or cheek, so the nurse should make sure that the pt swallowed med. before recording
slide20
Inappropriate if client cannot swallow or is unconscious
  • Cannot be used before certain diagnostic tests or surgical procedures
  • Certain situation that oral med shouldn’t be administered:
  • Pt has difficulty in swallowing
  • Unconscious
  • NPO
slide21
Forms of oral medication are:

- Solid; include tablets, capsules, and pills

- Liquid; such as elixir, syrup, suspension and can be taken either by measured cup or syringes, syringes should be placed between the gum and cheeks and the pt should be upright position or side lying to prevent chocking and aspiration.

slide22
2- Sublingual Medication

- A drug is placed under the tongue where it dissolves

- More potent than oral route because drug directly enters the blood and bypasses the liver

- May cause stinging or irritation of the mucous membranes.

slide23
3- Buccal Medication “pertaining to the cheek’’

A medication (e.g., a tablet) is held in the mouth against the mucous membranes of the cheek until the drug dissolves.

slide25
4- Parenteral Medication

Defined as other than through the alimentary or respiratory tract; that is by needle. The following are some of the more common routes for parenteral administration:

- Subcutaneous (Hypodermic) – into the subcutaneous tissue, just below the skin.

slide26
- Intramuscular – into the muscle

- Intradermal – under the epidermis (into the dermis)

- Intravenous – into a vein

Some of the less commonly used routes for parenteral administration are intra – arterial (into an artery). Intracardiac (into the heart muscle), intraosseous (into a bone), intrathecal or intraspinal (into the spinal canal), intrapleural (into the pleural space), epidural (into the epidural space), and intraarticular (into a joint).

slide27
Intra dermal

Intra osseous

slide29
5- Topical Medication

Are those applied to a circumscribed surface area of the body. They affect only the area to which they are applied. They include the following:

- Dermatologic preparations – Applied to the skin

- Instillations and irrigations – Applied into body cavities or orifices, such as the urinary bladder, eyes, ears, nose, rectum, or vagina

- Inhalations – administered into the respiratory tract by nebulizer.

slide31
Medication Orders; no medication given to a client without order from physician or nurse practitioners

1- Types of medication orders; there are several types of orders that a physician may write:

A standing order may be carried out as specified until an order is written to cancel it, or it may be carried out for a specified number of days (e.g., Demerol 100 mg IM q4h × 5 days).

slide32
As Needed or prn ; the pts receives medication when it is requested or needed, usually written for postoperative orders pain management

Single order or one – time order is for medication to be given once at a specified time by the physician such as a medication to be administrative immediately before surgery

Stat order indicates that the medication is to be givenimmediately and only once.

slide33
2- Essential parts of the medication order:
  • Client’s full name; full name is used
  • Date & time the order is written in order to prevent errors
  • Name of the drug to be administered
  • Frequency of administration such as Q 4 hours, Bid.
  • Dosage of the drug
  • Route by which the drug to be administered
  • Signature of the person writing the order; the name signature and title, it is important for a legal reason.
slide34
Checking the medication order; that is written on a Kardex 3 times
  • Questioning the medication order, because the nurse is legally responsible for the drug administer any order suspected to be an error should be questioned guessing is a gross carelessness rechecking with the person who wrote the order is the only safe procedure.
slide35
Calculating Dosages

REMEMBER

1000µg =1mg

1000mg =1g

1000g =1kg

1kg=202 Ib

1000ml=1L

slide36
Several formulas can be used to calculate drug dosages. One formula uses ratio:

Dose on hand = dose desired

Quantity on hand quantity desired

For example, erythromycin 500mg is ordered. It is supplied in a liquid form containing 250mg in 5 ml. Calculate the dosage by using this formula.

slide37
Pediatric calculation

Calculation according to the child’s weight or body surface “BSA” and the formula calculating child dose are:

BSA “child” (m2) X normal adult dose = child’s dose

1.7m2

For example, a child who weighs 10 kg and is 50cm tall has a body surface area of 0.4m2, Therefore, the child’s dose of tetracycline corresponding to an adult dose of 150mg would be?

slide38
The Ten Rights of Medication AdministrationThe six rights can be used as a mental checklist to assist those administering medication to remember and clarify the critical elements of the process. They are the:

Right medicine. Administer the correct medication. Check three times, prior to administration.

Right dose. Administer the right amount of medication.

Right time. Administer medication at the prescribed time. This can usually be within 30 minutes earlier or later than the designated time unless otherwise specified by the provider or the pharmacist.

Right route. Use the prescribed method of medication administration.

slide39
Right client. Properly identify the patient before administering the medication, ask the patient to state his or her name).

Right client education. Explain information about the medication to the client

Right documentation. Promptly and accurately document the medication administration

Right to refuse. Adult clients have the right to refuse any medication.

Right assessment. Some medication requires specific assessments prior to administration (e.g., apical pulse, blood pressure, lab result).

Right Evaluation. Was the desired effect achieved or not?

slide40
CheckThree Times for safe Medication Administration

Safety measures are the most important while preparing the medication. The label of the medication container should be checked 3 times during medication preparation.

First Check

- Read the medication administration record

- Compare the label of the medication against the MAR

- Check the expiration date of the medication

Second Check

- During preparing the medication

Third check

  • Recheck the label on the container before returning to its

storage place.

slide41
Maintaining a safe environment

Such as good lighting when preparing the medication better for the nurse while preparing the drugs to be alone, no distraction, locked the drawer after preparing, each pt, giving drug recording is important.

Caring for controlled substance safety

  • Caring through locked drawer or container
  • Caring for Narcotic
  • Checks the identification cart or bracelet before giving the medication
ad