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    1. The “Nuts & Bolts” of Adlerian Clinical Supervision. Ken McCurdy, Ph.D., LPC, NCC, ACS Melissa Schmidt, Graduate Assistant Gannon University, Erie, PA

    2. Adlerian supervision provides a useful structure for the overall conceptualization of supervision as developmental, moving from supervisee dependence to independence. It is structured and task efficient with strategies and goals for supervisee growth and defined measures of growth. Finally, it provides a supportive environment to embrace supervisee innovation and integration (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). Adlerian supervision provides a useful structure for the overall conceptualization of supervision as developmental, moving from supervisee dependence to independence. It is structured and task efficient with strategies and goals for supervisee growth and defined measures of growth. Finally, it provides a supportive environment to embrace supervisee innovation and integration (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000).

    3. 4 Phases of Adlerian Supervision Establishing an egalitarian relationship in supervision. Assessment – Understanding the Supervisee’s and Client’s perceptual views. Developing Insight Reorientation of Supervisee

    4. Effecting the Crucial C’s in Adlerian Supervision (Lew & Bettner, 2000) The Crucial C’s Effecting the Crucial C’s is a process that permeates all phases of Adlerian Supervision Connecting with the supervisee. Helping a supervisee feels like he/she Counts. Impressing upon a supervisee that she/he is Capable. Fostering Courage in supervisees to be imperfect.

    5. The Power of Encouragement in Adlerian Supervision Supervisees experience encouragement through the supervisory process when supervisors focus on: What the supervisee is doing, not how he/she is doing; The present; not past performance; The deed and not the doer; The effort rather than the outcome; The intrinsic motivation rather than the extrinsic.

    6. Phase I - Establishing an Egalitarian Relationship Focuses on the following Crucial C’s Foster making a Connection between supervisor & supervisee Help supervisee feel like he/she Counts Mutually agreed upon goals Fostering Social Interest Helping to meet Life Task of Work

    7. Phase I - Continued Ways to build an egalitarian relationship in supervision Personable introductions Clinical Contracts – mutually agreed upon goals and expectations Review professional Disclosure Statements Encouragement and more encouragement

    8. Phase II - Assessment Focus on the following Crucial C Assist supervisees to feel capable Assessment of the supervisee’s Life-style Assessment of the supervisee’s Counseling Style of life Continued use of ERs to address resistance Counseling Style is analogous to the Adlerian “Life-style,” is comprised of the private assumptions and subjective interpretations about human nature that guide supervisees since these are theoretical foundations upon which the supervisee builds his/her helping behaviors (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). The supervisor will inquire about the supervisee’s counseling experiences and expectations to determine what real or imagined difficulties may exist (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). Assessing the Counseling Style will allow the supervisor to determine a supervisee’s goal orientation and help to better understand his/her faculty goals. The supervisor explores what the supervisee needs to feel safe, loved, and expert. Counseling Style is analogous to the Adlerian “Life-style,” is comprised of the private assumptions and subjective interpretations about human nature that guide supervisees since these are theoretical foundations upon which the supervisee builds his/her helping behaviors (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). The supervisor will inquire about the supervisee’s counseling experiences and expectations to determine what real or imagined difficulties may exist (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). Assessing the Counseling Style will allow the supervisor to determine a supervisee’s goal orientation and help to better understand his/her faculty goals. The supervisor explores what the supervisee needs to feel safe, loved, and expert.

    9. Phase II - Continued Ways to assess: Life-style Counseling Style of Life The private assumptions and subjective interpretations about human nature, and the professional patterns, that guide the practice of counseling. I am ___. Clients are ______. Counseling is _____. Therefore _____. ERs are used throughout the supervision process to address resistance Exploration of Parallel Life-style movement

    10. Phase III – Developing Insight Focus on the following Crucial C Provide opportunities to foster courage in supervisee (this occurs throughout supervision) Supervisor identifies and provides suppositions about non-facilitative behaviors that arise as a result of mistaken goals Exploration of Parallel Life-style Movement Similarities or commonalities in life-style movement that may occur between a supervisee and client which can contribute to resistance The supervisor will assist the supervisee to develop insight into his/her beliefs, motives, and goals (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). The supervisee’s recognition of ineffective helping behaviors structures the learning environment within the supervisory process, identifying the supervisee’s conceptual goals and skill targets toward which the supervisee will begin the maturation process (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). When resistance (stuckness) occurs in supervision between the supervisor and supervisee it is addressed through exploring the supervisee’s private logic and biased apperceptions. These are based on faulty goals, generally manifested through the goals of misbehavior, and investigated through the processing of ERs (Dollarhide & Nlson, 2000). Exploring a supervisee’s ERs can give insight into how supervisee’s Private Logic, Biased Apperceptions and Goals of Misbehavior are effecting resistance (stuckness) (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). Reviewing parallel life-style movements can increase a supervisee’s awareness of how his/her life-style biases can align with those of the client and contribute to resistance (stuckness) in the counseling process (Kopp & Robles, 1989). Metaphors are also explored to further understand the issues contributing to resistance (stuckness). They may lead to identification of the parallel life-style movement which is at the core of resistance (stuckness) (Kopp & Robles, 1989). The supervisor will assist the supervisee to develop insight into his/her beliefs, motives, and goals (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). The supervisee’s recognition of ineffective helping behaviors structures the learning environment within the supervisory process, identifying the supervisee’s conceptual goals and skill targets toward which the supervisee will begin the maturation process (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). When resistance (stuckness) occurs in supervision between the supervisor and supervisee it is addressed through exploring the supervisee’s private logic and biased apperceptions. These are based on faulty goals, generally manifested through the goals of misbehavior, and investigated through the processing of ERs (Dollarhide & Nlson, 2000). Exploring a supervisee’s ERs can give insight into how supervisee’s Private Logic, Biased Apperceptions and Goals of Misbehavior are effecting resistance (stuckness) (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). Reviewing parallel life-style movements can increase a supervisee’s awareness of how his/her life-style biases can align with those of the client and contribute to resistance (stuckness) in the counseling process (Kopp & Robles, 1989). Metaphors are also explored to further understand the issues contributing to resistance (stuckness). They may lead to identification of the parallel life-style movement which is at the core of resistance (stuckness) (Kopp & Robles, 1989).

    11. Phase III – Continued Ways to foster insight development and to test hypotheses The Question Identification of Fictive Goals Goals of Misbehavior in Supervision Supervisor presents tentative hypotheses about supervisee’s fictive goals (goals of misbehavior in supervision) When resistance (stuckness) occurs, the supervisor can explore the supervisee’s private logic and biased apperceptions based on faulty goals Utilize ERs to explore Parallel Life-style movement Goals of Misbehavior in Supervision The desired outcome of supervision is that when the supervisor is experiencing frustration, the/she must recognize the goal of the supervisee is attention getting; anger implies power, hurt implies revenge, and helplessness implies inadequacy. When this connection occurs, the supervisor is then able to take the initial recognition of the goal (the feeling of annoyance, anger, hurt, or helplessness coming from the supervisee) and connect it with the preconscious cognitions of the supervisee which contribute to the resistance (stuckness) in the counseling relationship (Carns & Carns, 1994). Assessing Parallel Life-style Movement Supervisors will explore several ERs with a supervisee. After the ERs are obtained, the supervisor will ask the supervisee to examine whether there is a parallel between what happened in an ER presented and what is currently happening with his/her client in counseling (Kopp & Robles, 1989).Goals of Misbehavior in Supervision The desired outcome of supervision is that when the supervisor is experiencing frustration, the/she must recognize the goal of the supervisee is attention getting; anger implies power, hurt implies revenge, and helplessness implies inadequacy. When this connection occurs, the supervisor is then able to take the initial recognition of the goal (the feeling of annoyance, anger, hurt, or helplessness coming from the supervisee) and connect it with the preconscious cognitions of the supervisee which contribute to the resistance (stuckness) in the counseling relationship (Carns & Carns, 1994). Assessing Parallel Life-style Movement Supervisors will explore several ERs with a supervisee. After the ERs are obtained, the supervisor will ask the supervisee to examine whether there is a parallel between what happened in an ER presented and what is currently happening with his/her client in counseling (Kopp & Robles, 1989).

    12. Phase IV - Reorientation Focus on the following Crucial C Instill/cultivate courage in supervisee to identify more desirable helping behaviors Supervisee practices and integrates new behaviors into Counseling Style Supervisee is able to recognize and correct non-facilitative behaviors, increasing intentionality The supervisee identifies more desirable helping behaviors, practices those behaviors with the client(s) in the context of supervision, and integrates those new behaviors into the helping paradigm (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000). The supervisee identifies more desirable helping behaviors, practices those behaviors with the client(s) in the context of supervision, and integrates those new behaviors into the helping paradigm (Dollarhide & Nelson, 2000).

    13. Phase IV - Continued Ways to foster re-orientation Explore resistance (stuckness) through ERs and parallel life-style movement Routinely done throughout supervision when issue specific resistance occurs Supervisor and supervisee mutually identify ways to develop effective interventions so as to reorient the supervisees movement and goals in counseling Reframing of parallel life-style movement to correct non-facilitative behaviors and guide counseling style in a more positive direction Reframing Parallel Life-style Movements The supervisor describes in a non-threatening, empathic, and sometimes humorous manner the dynamics apparent in the therapeutic relationship. The private logic, goals of misbehavior and life-style biases are accepted as natural and valuable rather than criticized (Kopp & Robles, 1989). The centrality of the supervisee’s life-style movement and goals, and its parallel to the client’s life-style movement enable quick identification, reorientation, and resolution of the issues contributing to resistance (stuckness) so that counseling can proceed effectively (Kopp & Robles, 1989). Reframing Parallel Life-style Movements The supervisor describes in a non-threatening, empathic, and sometimes humorous manner the dynamics apparent in the therapeutic relationship. The private logic, goals of misbehavior and life-style biases are accepted as natural and valuable rather than criticized (Kopp & Robles, 1989). The centrality of the supervisee’s life-style movement and goals, and its parallel to the client’s life-style movement enable quick identification, reorientation, and resolution of the issues contributing to resistance (stuckness) so that counseling can proceed effectively (Kopp & Robles, 1989).