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Objectives Explain what a network is Understand basic networking concepts and terms Explain the advantages of using a network in the home Discuss the advantages of using a network in an office Objectives (continued) Determine boundaries between networks Describe network topologies

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objectives
Objectives
  • Explain what a network is
  • Understand basic networking concepts and terms
  • Explain the advantages of using a network in the home
  • Discuss the advantages of using a network in an office

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Determine boundaries between networks
  • Describe network topologies
  • Understand general network design concepts
  • Design a simple LAN

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

what is a network
What Is a Network?
  • Three types of networks
    • Word-of-mouth communication
    • Telephone
    • Computer
  • Computer networks
    • Transmit information to person or group like word-of-mouth
    • Use telephone network communication infrastructure
      • Communication cables and radio waves
      • Specialized equipment to connect networks
    • Carry data, voice, and video communications

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

what is a network continued
What Is a Network? (continued)
  • Computer network components
    • Computer hardware and software
    • Print devices
    • Network Devices
  • System components linked using various media
    • Copper wire
    • Fiber-optic cables
    • Radio waves
    • Infrared waves
    • Microwaves
  • Benefit of computer networks: information sharing

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

removing the mystery from network concepts
Removing the Mystery from Network Concepts
  • Master basic networking concepts
    • Different network types
    • Different terms for various network elements
    • Processes about how networks should work

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

understanding the types of networks
Understanding the Types of Networks
  • Three types of networks
    • Local area networks (LANs)
    • Metropolitan area networks (MANs)
    • Wide area networks (WANs)
  • LAN
    • Interconnects computers, printers, other equipment
    • Consists of shared hardware and software resources in close physical proximity
    • Example: University Chemistry Department

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

understanding the types of networks continued
Understanding the Types of Networks (continued)
  • MAN (metropolitan area network)
    • Spans a greater distance than a LAN
      • Up to 48 kilometers (about 30 miles)
    • Links multiple LANs within city or metropolitan region
      • Typically uses fiber-optic/wireless connections
    • LANs may be separately owned
    • Example: Links to Chemistry building LAN
      • Research hospital LAN
      • Pharmaceutical company LAN

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

understanding the types of networks continued12
Understanding the Types of Networks (continued)
  • WAN (wide area network)
    • Composed of two or more LANs or MANs
    • Connected across distance greater than 48 km
    • May have constituent LANs on different continents
  • Enterprise network
    • Links different users across one or more organizations
    • Provides variety of resources
    • Used to fulfill business, research, educational tasks
    • Typically consists of several LANs
    • Example: Campus enterprise network

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using basic networking terms
Using Basic Networking Terms
  • Node (or station): network component
    • Personal computer, server, mainframe, minicomputer, printer, fax, CD-ROM array, disk array
  • Nodes linked through communications media
    • Wire cabling, fiber-optic cables, radio or infrared waves
    • Provides transmission of signals to and from nodes
  • Three network nodes important to users:
    • Workstations
    • Hosts
    • Servers

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using basic networking terms continued
Using Basic Networking Terms (continued)
  • Workstation computer
    • Has CPU (central processing unit) and operating system
    • Home to local applications such as Microsoft Office
    • Runs network applications to access data on server or mainframe
    • May fulfill roles as client and host
  • Client: workstation accessing data or software on another computer
    • Example: personal computer using Intel chip
  • Host: computer accessed for data or software

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using basic networking terms continued16
Using Basic Networking Terms (continued)
  • Servers
    • Single computers offering multiuser access
    • Repository for software applications and data files
    • Host from two to as many as several thousand users
    • Network operating system is key to capability
      • Example: Microsoft Windows Server operating system
  • Network nodes attached to media through NIC
  • NIC (network interface card)
    • Board installed in computer or network device
    • Attached to communication media by connector or antenna

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

understanding network concepts in historical context
Understanding Network Concepts in Historical Context
  • Two reasons for studying network history
    • Shows how practices and concepts have evolved
    • Provides social, political, technical context
  • LANs/WANs rooted in telegraph and telephone systems
  • Driving forces in networking technology
    • Interpersonal communication
    • Business transactions
    • Entertainment products

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using a network in a home
Using a Network in a Home
  • Networks enrich use of computers and digital services
  • Three prominent uses of home networks
    • Sharing files and printers
    • Accessing the Internet and entertainment resources
    • Connecting home resources
      • Computers, entertainment devices, appliances

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

connecting computers for sharing files and printers
Connecting Computers for Sharing Files and Printers
  • Share files in home by connecting computers
    • Example 1: Transfer files from laptop to desktop
    • Example 2: Cross-computer file back-up
  • Three common ways to share printers
    • Share workstation printer using operating system
      • Caveat: no one can use printer if workstation off
    • Attach printer directly to network using built-in NIC
    • Utilize print server with multiple connections and NIC
      • Plug one or more printers into print server
      • Connect print server to network

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using internet and entertainment resources
Using Internet and Entertainment Resources
  • Several methods for sharing Internet connection
  • Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
    • Configure Internet sharing in home with Windows XP
      • Create Internet connection with Windows XP computer
      • Link connected computer to network
      • Configure ICS in Windows XP
    • Can also be set up in Windows Server 2003
  • Entertainment opportunities with home networks
    • Connects digital devices with NIC to network
    • Uses media hubs to connect home entertainment center

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

connecting home resources
Connecting Home Resources
  • Home appliances can be network devices
    • Example: refrigerators with digital message boards
      • Message boards linked to Internet
  • Other control features enhanced in home networks
    • Temperature settings
    • Turning music on/off
    • Managing lighting systems

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using a network in an office
Using a Network in an Office
  • Offices greatly enhanced through networks
  • Networks increase productivity and lower costs

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using a network to save time and money
Using a Network to Save Time and Money
  • Two ways networks save time and money
    • Share information without leaving office
    • Telecommute to office via home network
  • Example: accountant's meeting with client
    • Compute taxes on networked computer
    • Send tax documents to shared printer
    • Editing and compiling done by associate
    • Tax document returned to accountant
      • Meeting continues uninterrupted
    • Bill generated after meeting concludes

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using a network as a business strategy
Using a Network as a Business Strategy
  • Business strategy served by well-planned network
    • Illustrate using two companies selling specialty food
  • Scenario involving company one
    • Customer places order over the Web
    • Order manually transcribed to piece of paper
    • Data-entry clerk enters order so bill is generated
    • Data-entry clerk hand delivers order to inventory clerk
    • Inventory clerk prepares item for delivery
    • Turnaround time: three to five business days

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

using a network as a business strategy continued
Using a Network as a Business Strategy (continued)
  • Scenario involving company two
    • Customer places order over the Web
    • Order automatically entered into processing server
    • Order-processing server generates bill
    • Order-processing server sends data to processing area
    • Inventory automatically adjusted for order
    • Item sent out to customer
    • Turnaround time: one business day
  • Company one handles more volume
    • Efficiency most likely rewarded with more orders

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

connecting office resources
Connecting Office Resources
  • Advantages to networking office equipment
    • Same as for networking home devices, but multiplied
  • Example of printer sharing in office of 28 people
    • Only three or four printers needed (centrally located)
    • Benefits
      • Save space for other activities
      • Reduce cost of providing print capability to office workers
      • Reduce cost of maintenance, e.g., cartridge replacement
  • Networking capabilities enhance business of any size

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

connecting office resources continued
Connecting Office Resources (continued)
  • Resources shared when connected to a network
    • Files
    • Printers
    • CD-ROM arrays
    • Network storage through disk arrays
    • Centralized tape or CD backups of critical files
    • Fax machines
    • Specialty printers, such as plotters
    • Network conferencing devices
    • Internet connectivity
    • Internet telephony

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

identifying network boundaries
Identifying Network Boundaries
  • Distinguish network types using four properties
    • Communications medium
    • Protocol
    • Topology
    • Network type (private versus public)
  • Examining communications medium
    • LAN boundaries based on communication medium changes
      • Boundary 1: fiber-optic cables linking wire-cable LANs
      • Boundary 2: medium change from fiber-optics to microwaves

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

identifying network boundaries continued
Identifying Network Boundaries (continued)
  • Examining protocols
    • Formatting and transmission of data
      • Discrete units of data called packets or frames
    • Change/addition to protocol often signals LAN boundary
    • Example: Ethernet and token ring protocols
      • Devices at boundary line convert frames or packets
  • Examining topology
    • Two components
      • Physical layout of network cables and devices
      • Logical path followed by network packets or frames
    • Example: Logical path of frames follows star pattern

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

identifying network boundaries continued33
Identifying Network Boundaries (continued)
  • Examining network types
    • Often change at network boundary
    • Example: beginning/end points of public and private networks
  • Private networks owned and operated by organization
  • Public networks offer services to public
  • Virtual private network (VPN)
    • Private network tunnels through larger network
    • Restricted to designated member clients

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

network topologies
Network Topologies
  • Topology: physical layout combined with logical path
  • Cable plant: pattern of physical layout
    • Wired networks: cabling laid in office, building, campus
    • Wireless networks: types of antennas, devices, direction of transmission
  • Decentralized network layout
    • Cable between each station on network
    • Analogy: mountain climbers connected by a rope
  • Centralized network layout
    • Each station physically connected to central device
    • Analogy: star with workstation as its points

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

network topologies continued
Network Topologies (continued)
  • Main topologies: bus, ring, star, and mesh
  • Hybrid topologies: star-bus, star-ring
  • Selecting topology for network
    • Consider intended purpose
      • Demand for network services
      • Number and kinds of applications used
      • Network traffic (number of frames to transmit)
      • Connection to other networks
      • Security needs
  • Network topology influences network growth potential

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

bus topology
Bus Topology
  • Bus topology
    • Consists of cables connecting PCs or file servers
    • Visualizes connections as chain links
    • Terminator attached to each end of bus cable segment
  • Transmitting packet across bus
    • Detected by all nodes on segment
    • Given time limit to reach destination
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
    • Develops standards for network cabling, transmission
    • Specifies length of bus segment

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

bus topology continued
Bus Topology (continued)
  • Terminator signals end of physical segment
    • Functions as resistor that absorbs signal
  • Terminator critical on bus networks
    • Prevents signal reflection back on to covered path
  • Advantages of bus design
    • Requires less cable than other topologies
    • Easy to extend bus with a workstation
  • Disadvantages of bus topology
    • High management costs
      • Single defective node can take down entire network
    • Can become quickly congested with network traffic

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

ring topology
Ring Topology
  • Ring topology: continuous data path
    • Workstations attached to cable at points around ring
  • Transmitting data across ring topology
    • Goes around ring to reach destination
    • Continues until ends at source node
  • Advantages to ring topology
    • Easier to manage than bus
    • Handles high volume network better than bus
    • Suited to transmitting signals over long distances
  • Disadvantages to ring topology
    • More expensive to implement than bus
    • Fewer equipment options than bus

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

star topology
Star Topology
  • Star topology: multiple nodes attached to central device (hub, switch, router)
    • Cable segments radiate from center like a star
    • Example: workstations connected to switch
  • Advantages of star topology
    • Start-up costs comparable to ring topology
    • Easier to manage, defective nodes quickly isolated
    • Easier to expand by connecting nodes or networks
    • Offers better equipment and high-speed options
  • Disadvantages of star topology
    • Failure of central device may cause network failure
    • Requires more cable than bus

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

star bus hybrid topology
Star-Bus Hybrid Topology
  • Star-bus (star-wired) topology
    • Each radiating finger is separate logical bus segment
    • Each segment terminated at both ends
  • Advantages of star-bus topology
    • No exposed terminators
    • Connect multiple central devices to expand network
    • Connection between central devices is a backbone
      • Backbone enables high-speed communication
    • Central devices have built-in intelligence
    • Many equipment and high-speed options available

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

star ring hybrid topology
Star-Ring Hybrid Topology
  • Star-ring (star-wired) topology
    • Hub or access unit acts as linking device
    • Transmission using logical communication of ring
    • No need for built-in terminators

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

mesh topology
Mesh Topology
  • Mesh topology
    • Every node connected to every other node in network
    • Provides network with fault tolerance
      • Fault tolerance: built-in protection against failure
      • If link breaks, nodes can still communicate
    • Alternate communication paths increase as number of nodes increase
  • Mesh topology used less on LANs
    • Expensive to implement
  • Mesh topology often used in MANs and WANs

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

network design introduction
Network Design Introduction
  • Step 1: Understand protocols, access methods, topologies
    • Example: Telecommunications-based WAN vs. satellite-based WAN
  • Step 2: Understand physical equipment used
    • Example: Different media for backbone and internal network
  • Step 3: Understand basic network design principles
    • Structured wiring and networking
    • Designing for multimedia and client/server applications
    • Taking advantage of LAN and WAN characteristics

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

network design introduction continued
Network Design Introduction (continued)
  • Step 4: Assess nature of home, office, organization
    • Types of computers used as well as location
    • Software applications used and resources required
    • Patterns in organization relative to network use
    • High and low network use periods
    • How to simplify troubleshooting and maintenance
    • Determine security need for the network
    • Anticipate how growth affects network resources

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

designing a simple lan
Designing a Simple LAN
  • Scenario: Office with four lawyers, one secretary
  • Four components of solid design
    • Star-bus hybrid topology
    • Switch connecting computes in middle of star layout
    • Share certain information on network
    • Share printers on network
  • Rationale for design
    • Star-bus economical to implement and maintain
    • Use of switch satisfies need for fast communication
    • Resource sharing using peer-to-peer network
    • Internet access easily added

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

summary
Summary
  • Computer network links computers, printers, network devices, software
  • Connections may be wired or wireless
  • Three main network types: LANs, MANs, WANs
  • LAN (local are network) is short range
  • MAN (metropolitan area network) links LANs

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • WANs connect LANs and MANs
  • WAN (wide area network) range greater than MAN
  • Enterprise networks connect users in organization
  • Networks consist of nodes (stations) and communication media
  • Nodes attached to network with NIC (network interface card)

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals

summary continued54
Summary (continued)
  • Resource sharing: chief advantage of network
  • Network boundaries defined by communications media, protocols, topologies, network types
  • Four basic network topologies: bus, ring, star, mesh
  • Two hybrid topologies: star-bus and star-ring
  • Essential design knowledge: protocols, topologies, equipment, principles, organization needs

Hands-on Networking Fundamentals