by richard le andrew vaughn n.
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by Richard Le & Andrew Vaughn. Garlic: Allium sativum. What is garlic?. A strongly scented herb belonging to genus Allium of the family Liliaceae or Lily Contains hundreds of constituents with at least 23 identified sulphur compounds

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by richard le andrew vaughn
by

Richard Le

&

Andrew Vaughn

Garlic: Allium sativum
what is garlic
What is garlic?
  • A strongly scented herb belonging to genus Allium of the family Liliaceae or Lily
  • Contains hundreds of constituents with at least 23 identified sulphur compounds
  • Common names are Knoblaunch (German), stinking rose, da suan (Chinese)
  • Other common trade names: Garlicin, Garlinase 4,000, Garlique, Kwai, & Wellness Garlicell
plant description
Plant Description
  • plants have flat, grayish-green leaves, which grow 1-2 feet
  • During bloom period, the plants send up slender stalks which produce edible flowers in a round, white bulb
  • single bulb is composed of 8 to 12 sections called cloves, which are held together by parchment-like covering.
history of garlic
History of Garlic
  • Sanskrit records the usage of garlic 5,000 years ago
  • Chinese have used garlic for at least 3,000 years
  • Aristotle & Hippocrates researched and wrote about garlic for medicinal usage
traditional use
Traditional Use
  • Antiviral & antibacterial for the lungs: coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia
  • Garlic was and is still used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and naturopathic medicine as an antibacterial/antiviral agent, an expectorant, & a wound dressing
  • Used to treat high blood pressure, colds, gastric ulcers, bacterial diarrhea, sinus infections, vaginal yeast infections, & otitis media
  • The antibacterial activity of garlic was confirmed by Louis Pasteur in 1858
  • Used a topical cream to relieve wasp and bee stings
medicinal components
Medicinal Components
  • Medicinal portion of garlic is the bulb
  • Thiosulfanates (sulfur compounds) are main components of garlic
  • Odor of garlic is caused by enzymatic breakdown of alliin into allicin
  • Allicin is one of the most active ingredients
allicin
Allicin
  • Has antimicrobial activity to inhibit growth against gram- positive & gram-negative bacteria:
    • Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori
  • Interferes with the hepatic metabolism of cholesterol to reduce it.
    • Alliin reacts with enzyme allinase to form allicin
    • Allicin inhibits an enzyme vital to cholesterol production
  • Lowers LDL lipoproteins & raises HDL lipoproteins
  • Works as anticoagulant by inhibiting platelet aggregation
  • Protect endothelial tissue from oxidized low-density lipoprotein injury
allicin cont
Allicin cont.
  • Reduces serum triglycerides by about 13%
  • Reduces blood pressure by preventing atherosclerosis
  • Improves peripheral arterial disease
  • Can modestly reduce blood glucose by increasing body’s insulin and increasing glycogen storage in the liver
ajoene
Ajoene
  • Has weak antifungal activity against Candida albicans
  • Reduces platelet stickiness
  • Interferes with with hepatic metabolism of cholesterol to reduce serum cholesterol
  • Antiviral activity against HIV
diallyl sulfide
Diallyl Sulfide
  • Has antitumor activity
  • May raise levels of glutathione S-transferase, which detoxifies carcinogens
  • Has antiviral properties and inhibits herpes simplex, HIV, & cytomegalovirus
other actions of garlic
Other Actions of Garlic
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Mediates nitric oxide synthase activation, which helps restore endothelial function.
  • Improves the elasticity of blood vessels & reduces atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) & blood pressure
  • Inhibits inflammatory prostaglandins
nutritional ingredients
Nutritional Ingredients
  • Common food & spice used in Chinese, French, Thai, Cajun, Italian, and many others.
  • Minor source of selenium, chromium, potassium, germanium, calcium, iron, & vitamin A, B, & C
dosage administration
Dosage & Administration
  • Preparations: Fresh or dried cloves, capsules, “odorless” tablets, aged garlic extracts
  • Capsules: 500-600mg capsules a day

-Use product that delivers 5,000g of allicin daily

  • Food: one of fresh garlic per day
  • Whole fresh garlic is more active than any of its single constituents
dosage administration1
Dosage & Administration
  • Mince a clove of garlic, let stand for 10-15 min., & mix with yogurt, applesauce, or honey.
  • Lipid lowering effect: 600-900mg, 4g fresh garlic, or 10mg garlic oil gel caps, 2-3 per day
toxicity contraindications side effects
Toxicity, Contraindications, & Side Effects
  • No toxicity in average doses
  • Some concerns about consumption of garlic before surgery
  • Studies show a brief inhibition of platelet aggregation – patients don’t need to worry about reduced clotting
  • Person allergic to garlic or allium should avoid using garlic
side effects cont
Side Effects cont.
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, distress
  • GI disturbance
  • Allergic reactions
  • Body and Breath odor
  • Headache, insomnia, fatigue, & vertigo
  • Topical Garlic may cause skin irritation
  • Stimulates asthma, shortness of breath
  • Tachycardia (increased heart rate)
herb drug interactions
Herb-Drug Interactions
  • Decreases metabolism of acetaminophen & other drugs metabolized by the enzyme CYP 2E1
  • Garlic along with anticoagulants, NSAIDs, & prostacyclin may increase bleeding time
  • Blood glucose level may further decreased with usage of antidiabetic drugs
herb herb interactions
Herb-Herb Interactions
  • Garlic along with feverfew and ginkgo, anticoagulant drugs, may increase bleeding time
  • Garlic along with glucomannan, an antihyperglycemic drug, may further decrease blood glucose levels