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“Road Ecology: Science and Solutions”(A General Summary) Committee/Board Meetingand Symposium UW-Madison Pyle Center February 12-13, 2004
Presentation Objective • Introduce a New Book • Summarize Content • Provide Information that May be Relevant to our Focus
The Basics • Published 2003 • About 480 Pages • Island Press • 14 Authors • Primary Author: Richard Forman (Prof. Landscape Ecology - Harvard)
Other Authors: Daniel Sperling John Bissonette Anthony Clevenger Carol Cutshall Virginia Dale Lenore Fahrig Robert France Other Authors: Charles Goldman Kevin Heanue Julia Jones Fredrick Swanson Thomas Turrentine Thomas Winter The Basics (Cont.)
The Basics (Cont.) • Author’s Background • Prof. Landscape Ecology • Prof. Civil and Env. Engineering • Research Scientist USGS • Wildlife Research Ecologist • Ex-Director WisDOT Bureau of Environment • Ecologist • Prof. of Biology • Assoc. Prof. of Design (focus on Water) • Prof. of Limnology
The Basics (Cont.) • Author’s Background • Ex-FHWA Director of Environment and Planning (currently consultant in same area) • Research Ecologist with Forest Service • Anthropology Research (clean air focus) • Senior Research Hydrologist USGS • Book Objective: “…to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles and present specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles.”
The Content • 14 Chapters • 58 Page Bibliography • Part 1: Roads, Vehicles, and Ecology • Part 2: Vegetation and Wildlife • Part 3: Water, Chemicals, and Atmosphere • Part 4: Road Systems and Further Perspectives
Part 1: Roads, Vehicles, and Ecology • Road Ecology Defined/History • History of Roadway Systems • US/Canada • Size, Growth and Patterns • Roadway Infrastructure (e.g., Roadside, Bridges, etc.) • Vehicles and Planning • Automobile Impacts • Vehicles (Size, Fuel, and Technologies) • Planning and Project Development • Air Quality Models, etc.
Road Ecology- Definition • Road - “…an open way for the passage of vehicles…” • Ecology - “…the study of interactions between organisms and the environment.” • Road Ecology - “…the interaction of organisms and the environment linked to roads and vehicles.” • The Exploration of the Relationships between the Natural Environment and the Road System
Part 2: Vegetation and Wildlife • Roadsides and Vegetation • Reading the Roadside and Roadside Vegetation and Plants • Roadside Habitats and Animals • Roadside Management • Wildlife Populations • Road Mortality and Factors that Impact It • Changes in Amount/Quality of Habitat • Landscape Connectivity • Cumulative Effects and Road Density
Part 2 (Continued) • Mitigation for Wildlife • Measures for Mortality, Habitat Loss, and Reduced Habitat Quality • Types of Underpasses/Overpasses • Factor Impacting Wildlife Passage Use • Summary and Effectiveness • Mitigation Case Studies • Most Relevant Chapter and will be Used in Wildlife Crossing Summary of Toolbox
Part 3: Water, Chemicals, and Atmosphere • Water and Sediment Flows • Erosion and Sediment Control • Relationship between Roads and Water • Road Types, Land Use, and Water • Chemicals Along Roads • Sources, Dispersion, Ecological Effects • Roadsalt • Best Management Practices
Part 3 (Continued) • Aquatic Ecosystems • Habitat, Connectivity, and Roads • Lakes, Wetlands, and Salt Marshes • Streams/Rivers and Bridges/Culverts • Wind and Atmospheric Effects • Microclimates, Wind, and Windbreaks • Dust and Erosion, Snow and Snowbreaks • Vehicle Disturbance/Traffic Noise • Local, Regional, and Global Impacts
Part 4: Road Sys. and Further Perspectives • Road Systems and the Land • Road Ecology and Network Theory • Spatial Attributes and Changes in Networks • Impacts of Road System on Adjacent Land and the Impacts of Land on the Road System • Four Landscapes with Road Systems • Built Land • Forestry Land • Agricultural Land • Grazing/Arid Land
Part 4 (Continued) • Roads/Vehicles in Natural Landscape • Remote Land • Parkland • The Artic and the Tropics • Further Perspective (The Future) • Road Ecology and Sustainability • Potential Policy/Planning Solutions • Some Perspectives for Future Policy, Planning, and Projects
Pre-Publishing Comments • “Road Ecology is the “Silent Spring” of transportation. Unless we move rapidly from road engineering to road ecology, we will soon live in a world of squashed and fragmented ecosystems. Without pretension and hyperbole, this book calmly lays out both the scientific case for an ecological approach to transportation problem solving, and provides the roadmap for getting there. It is a huge contribution to the transportation and planning professions” David Burwell, President, STPP
Pre-Publishing Comments (Cont.) • “…synthesize[s] the varied ecological costs and benefits of roads, highlighting both what we know and what we don’t. In the process, they are initiating a new, ecologically sensitive approach to planning.” John Wein, Scientist, The Nature Conservancy • “An impressive and much needed synthesis that ‘maps a road’ forward for scientific discovery and better transportation planning and action. A must read for transportation specialists and ecologists alike.” Kathryn Freemark, Ecologist, Environment CA
Pre-Publishing Comments (Cont.) • “This book provides a roadmap for safeguarding wildlife, vegetation and water quality while we move ahead with our goals of reducing traffic congestion, enhancing safety and improving movement of goods to every corner of our state.” Jeff Morales, Director of Caltrans
My Conclusions • My Background: • Not Completely Finished with Book • Engineering/Traffic Safety Focus • Animal Mortality Focus • Solution/Countermeasure Focus • Found the Mitigation for Wildlife Chapter Helpful • Unfortunately Some Similar Countermeasure Conclusions based on Poor Research/Author Background
My Conclusions (Continued) • “Reality Check” Issue • Also Found the Roadsides and Vegetation Chapter Interesting • Wide Range of Perspectives for Policy and Programming of Roadways • Great Document for Discussion of the Wide Range of Roadway Environmental Impacts (Water, Noise, Air, and Animal Mortality) • An Interesting Read Overall
Questions and Discussion Website: www.deercrash.com