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Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Amgad Elgowainy, Andy Burnham, Michael Wang, John Molburg, and Aymeric Rousseau Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Presentation at MIT/Ford/Shell Research Workshop

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well to wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug in hybrid electric vehicles

Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Amgad Elgowainy, Andy Burnham, Michael Wang, John Molburg, and Aymeric Rousseau

Center for Transportation Research

Argonne National Laboratory

Presentation at MIT/Ford/Shell Research Workshop

June 8, 2009

scope of argonne s phev wtw analysis
Scope of Argonne’s PHEV WTW Analysis
  • To examine relative energy and emission merits of PHEVs; the vehicle types addressed were:
    • Conventional international combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs)
    • Regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
    • ICE plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
    • Fuel cell (FC) PHEVs
  • Fuel options:
    • Petroleum
      • Gasoline
      • Diesel
    • E85 with ethanol from
      • Corn
      • Switchgrass
    • Hydrogen with several production pathways
    • Electricity with different generation mixes

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argonne s phev wtw analysis addresses the following key issues
Argonne’s PHEV WTW Analysis Addresses The Following Key Issues

PHEV performance evaluation with Argonne’s PSAT model

Explored PHEV operating strategies

Processed fuel economy results for various PHEV configurations

Examined effects of all electric ranges (AER) of PHEVs

Electricity generation mixes to charge PHEVs

Reviewed studies completed in this area

Generated five sets of generation mixes for PHEV recharge

PHEV mileage shares by power source

Relied on national average distribution of daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT)

Determined VMT shares by charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) operations

GREET WTW simulations of PHEVs

Expanded and configured GREET for PHEVs

Conducted GREET PHEV WTW simulations

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five sets of generation mixes for phev recharge were used in this study
Five Sets of Generation Mixes for PHEV Recharge Were Used in This Study (%)
  • US Average: the default GREET average mix for 2020
  • IL, NY, and CA Marginal: from the 2020 mix with 2kW charging capacity starting at 10 PM from a study by Hadley et al.
  • Renewable: a scenario reflecting upper limit on benefits of PHEVs

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a set of vehicle fuel systems was included in this analysis
A Set of Vehicle/Fuel Systems Was Included in This Analysis

5

  • Vehicle types included:
    • ICEV: Gasoline SI, E85 SI, Diesel CI
    • HEV: Gasoline SI, E85 SI, Diesel CI; Hydrogen FC
    • PHEV: Gasoline SI, E85 SI, Diesel CI; Hydrogen FC
  • Model year 2015 midsize car
  • Fuel economy results were adjusted using EPA 2007-adopted formula for on-road performance

5

fuel consumption calculated from psat fuel economy values btu mi
Fuel Consumption Calculated from PSAT Fuel Economy Values (Btu/mi)
  • Fuel consumption for each operation is the following:
  • CD electric: electricity consumption in CD operation
  • CD Engine: fuel consumption by ICE/FC in CD (blended mode) operation
  • CS operation: fuel consumption in CS operation

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phevs with 20 mile aer can potentially drive 40 of daily vmt phevs with 40 mile aer more than 60
PHEVs with 20-Mile AER Can Potentially Drive 40% of Daily VMT , PHEVs with 40-Mile AER More than 60%

NHTS

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slide14

Thank you!GREET web site:http://www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/index.htmlPHEV WTW Analysis Report:http://www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/559.pdf

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psat fuel economy results miles per gasoline equivalent gallon wh mile for cd electric operation
PSAT Fuel Economy Results (Miles Per Gasoline Equivalent Gallon, Wh/Mile for CD Electric Operation)

CD electric operation and CD on-board operation complement each other for the same CD miles (i.e., blended mode operation)

  • CD Electric = charge depleting operation with grid electricity
  • CD Engine = charging depleting operation with on-board power systems (ICE or Fuel Cell)
  • CS = charge sustaining operation with on-board power systems
  • AER 0 = zero-mile AER (i.e., regular HEV)
  • AER 10 = 10-mile AER; AER 20 = 20-mile AER; AER 30 = 30-mile AER; AER 40 = 40-mile AER
  • UDDS = Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule;HWFET = Highway Fuel Economy Test

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processing of psat mpg results for greet fuel consumption inputs
Processing of PSAT MPG Results for GREET Fuel Consumption Inputs

PSAT fuel economy results were first converted into fuel consumption

The city (UDDS) and highway (HWFET) results of PSAT were combined with 55% UDDS and 45% HWFET

The PSAT results for CD electric operation did not include charging losses; we assumed a 85% efficient charger

PSAT fuel consumption for CD and CS operations were combined using the “Utility Factor”

(FCCDGrid + FCCDICE )* UF + FCCS * (1-UF)

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concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

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  • PSAT simulations of the blended mode operation of PHEVs show that grid electricity accounts for a small share of total vehicle energy use in combined CD and CS operations (~6% for PHEV10 and ~24% for PHEV40)
  • The effect of electric generation mix becomes smaller with the blended mode operation; However, electric generation mix is still shown to have a significant effects on WTW results, especially for GHG emissions
    • Petroleum use declines when electricity is generated from non-petroleum sources
    • GHGs are highest with large coal shares, but decreased with NG, and decreased even further with renewables
  • HEV vs. PHEV
    • Petroleum use decreases as AER increases (except for generation mixes with high share of oil)
    • GHGs in general decrease as AER increases (except for carbon intensive generation mixes and biomass-to-E85 and H2)
  • Gasoline ICE PHEV vs. FC PHEV
    • FC PHEVs have much lower petroleum energy use
    • FC PHEVs using SMR-H2 slightly reduce GHGs; Biomass-to-H2 FC PHEVs significantly reduce GHGs
  • Outstanding issues
    • Electric generation mix for recharging PHEVs is affected by many factors: total electricity demand by PHEVs, location of PHEVs, time of day for recharging, PHEV buffer ability for the utility system
    • Utility dispatch modeling may be necessary for further analysis

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