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MAC Volleyball Training – 2005 For 1 st /2 nd Year Referees. Agenda. Administrative Information Training/Evaluation Committee Information Points of Emphasis/Rules Changes The Libero The Basics The Officiating Team A Potpourri of Information How to Improve. Points of Contact.

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MAC Volleyball Training – 2005 For 1 st /2 nd Year Referees

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Presentation Transcript
  • Administrative Information
  • Training/Evaluation Committee Information
  • Points of Emphasis/Rules Changes
  • The Libero
  • The Basics
  • The Officiating Team
  • A Potpourri of Information
  • How to Improve
points of contact
Points of Contact
  • MAC VB web site:
  • Arbiter web site:
  • MAC VB related issues, assignments, or reporting DQ’s or game management issues (also CC
    • John Porter (703) 978-3601,
    • Rob Porter (703) 359-1048,
  • Rules or Procedures Interpretations
    • Vance Coleman (301) 577-4158(h), (301) 928-7204(c)
    • Rick Dubois (703) 430-8979(h), (571) 331-5866(c),
    • Contact
  • Uniforms and Equipment
    • Rick Dubois (or anyone else willing to volunteer)
    • John Vena for shirts
vb officiating equipment
VB Officiating Equipment

Mandatory Equipment/Uniform

  • Black Pants
  • White MAC Polo Shirt
  • Black (Tennis) Shoes
  • Black Socks
  • NFHS Patch
  • Whistle (pea less) w/Lanyard
  • Red and Yellow Cards
  • Net Measuring Device (Net Chain)
  • Hand-held Pump
  • Volleyball Pressure Gauge
  • Coin (Quarter or larger preferably)
  • Line-up Card (R2)
  • Rules Book
  • Watch (digital preferably)

Optional Equipment

  • Bag to carry volleyball equipment
  • Ear Plugs
  • Line Judge Flags
mac association policies rules
MAC Association Policies/Rules
  • Pay your NFHS dues: $27.50
  • Go online and register:
  • Submit close-outs by blocking out dates and times on arbiter web site
  • Call your partner 24-hours in advance
  • If unable to make contact with your partner, call John Porter on the day of the match
  • Submit pay sheet at the end of the season
  • Rate all your partners (see separate slide for rating criteria)
    • Senior partner will evaluate partner on line
  • Wear appropriate uniform and have required equipment
  • Be at match site NLT 30 minutes before start time
  • Report game management issues to John Porter
  • Check arbiter web site daily for schedule changes and to report match completions
training evaluation changes for 2005
New training committee

Vance Coleman

James Dornak

John Dowd

Rick Dubois

Andy Fontanilla

Kathy Gutmann

Kim Hayes

Don Hinton

Fred Mehl

Christy Otto

Gwen Sanford

Fred Seeger

Dean Shumway

Al Straub

Ron Zientek

Referees will keep score for at least one game/match during scrimmage season

Referees will be evaluated on their briefings/pre-match duties during the scrimmage season

Referees will be line judges during the scrimmage season (if not provided by host/given sufficient amount of referees to man the requirement)

Evaluations will be on line for regular season matches – senior/higher rated official will rate junior official’s performance

Some officials may only be doing line judge duties (their preference)

Specific training objectives at each training session

One-on-one training where necessary and/or requested

Training/Evaluation Changes for 2005
mac volleyball training events 2005
Aug 1st (Mon) – Classroom

Aug 4th (Thurs) – Classroom

Aug 8th (Mon) – Gym

Aug 11th (Thurs) – Gym (Advanced Training)

Aug 15th (Mon) – Gym

Aug 18th (Thurs) – Gym

Aug 22nd (Mon) – Test

Aug 25th (Thurs) – Gym

Aug 20th thru first week of Sept – HS Scrimmages – Location TBD

Aug 3rd (Wed) – Marshall HS

Aug 4th (Thurs) – Stafford HS

Aug 11th (Thurs) – Handley HS in Winchester

Aug 14th (Sun) – Charlottesville VHSL Office

Aug 28th (Sun) – Charlottesville VHSL Office

MAC Volleyball Training Events - 2005

Classroom/Gym Training – 7 PM

VHSL Clinics – 6 PM/Noon

trainer evaluator guidance
Trainer/Evaluator Guidance
  • Allow for errors and do not criticize individual, but criticize/provide feedback on performance
  • Do not over-coach/assist
  • Provide feedback out-of-range of coaches/players
  • Provide feedback to entire match team (you may separate LJ’s from R1/R2, as necessary, provide individual feedback when more beneficial)
  • Focus on major areas for improvement (prioritize)
  • Plan the training for areas you are responsible to train
  • Be prepared, bring all necessary forms for evaluation/training equipment necessary for training – ask Rick/John where to get equipment/resources if you don’t have it/them
  • Block out training days you are committing to on the Arbiter
  • Provide feedback (evaluations/improvement techniques/etc.) to Rick/Vance/John
  • R1/R2 determination is at the discretion of the senior (higher rated) official
  • “I will work with anyone/train them/control the match, but I will not allow their experience level to jeopardize the result”
rules guidance for evaluations
Rules/Guidance for Evaluations
  • All evaluators will use the same form (USAV evaluation form found at
  • All evaluators will review the criteria prior to the evaluation(s)
  • All officials evaluated may ask to see their evaluation report
  • If the evaluation is submitted on-line, it better match the evaluation provided to the official in person during the feedback session
  • Some individuals may be rated during the season without their knowledge
  • Evaluations will start off with the phrase (or something similar to it) “How do you think you did?” Await response, then ask “Why?” – Probe for details/make the evaluated individual perform his/her own self-assessment before commenting on their performance.
  • When you comment on their performance
    • First cover strengths/good plays/calls
    • Discuss troubled plays/questionable calls
    • Ask how they believe they can improve their performance
    • Provide input for their focus on future matches (in priority)
    • Ensure the feedback is complete and follows some sequence (chronological, by duty performed during the match (R1/R2/LJ/SC, etc.), or some other sequence)
points of emphasis for 2005
Points of Emphasis for 2005
    • Net serve signal
    • Importance of warming up
    • Use of lineup cards
    • Change in signals for a down ball
  • MAC Association
    • Uniform adherence
    • Timeliness to matches
    • Contact partner(s) prior to match (24 hours)
    • Pre-match with work team (scoring table officials and line judges)
      • Identify game event manager
      • Identify location of trainer
    • Bench control
    • Fraternization with teams
    • Setter/libero recognition and player overlaps (back row attack/block)
    • R2 responsibilities
    • Teamwork between R1 and R2
rules changes 2005
Rules Changes 2005
  • Adoption of official uniform policy
    • White, short-sleeved collared polo shirt
    • Black pants
    • Solid black athletic shoes and black socks
  • R2 does not record illegal player equipment, uniform warnings, penalties and disqualifications on lineup cards
  • Rule 9-5-4 clarification to second sentence: If the ball is hit back into a back-row player whose hands are below the height of the net, it is ruled as the team’s first hit/contact.
  • Hand signal No. 2 for a line violation is now a finger pointed at the line instead of an open hand (signal 13 – ball lands in-bounds is an open palm)
  • Rule 6-3-2 introduces the adoption of the libero in high school volleyball (more details on subsequent slides)
new rules interpretations review of 2003 changes
New Rules & Interpretations (Review of 2003 changes)
  • If a deciding game occurs, the home team calls the flip and has a choice of serve, side, or receive. Opponent gets remaining choice (no switching at 8 pts).
  • No jewelry during warm-up period (team delay)
  • Uniforms shall be worn as intended by manufacturers.
  • Position of uniform number (can you see it and uniform enforcement across the association)
  • Live balls are dead when the official’s whistle sounds
  • Charged time outs end after 60 seconds or both teams have returned to the court, whichever is less
  • Players and coaches can be penalized for unsportsmanlike acts toward their own team
review of 2003 2004 rules changes interpretations
Review of 2003 & 2004 Rules Changes & Interpretations
  • All varsity matches are 3 out of 5 (JV/Frosh are 2 out of 3)
  • All games are rally scoring to 25 points except the deciding 5th game to 15 points (no change of side at 8)
  • Let serve is okay
  • 2 time-outs per game (no additional time-outs for 24-24 tie)
  • Home team selects its bench before the warm ups (last year - 2003)
  • Visiting captain calls the coin toss. Winner selects serve or receive.
  • Adoption of USAV rule for ability to break the plane of a non-playing area provided they have some body part in contact with a playable area
  • R2 only needs to signal at the end of time-outs how many time-outs each team has used
  • Line judges will stand at the attack line and side line intersection near the R1. The line judge who’s team will serve next holds the ball. (College procedure except ball handlers normally hold the ball)
  • An exceptional sub is counted as a team sub if the team has not used all 18 of its substitutions
  • Head Coach must attend pre-match conference.
what is the libero
What is the libero?
  • A back-row player specialist that:
    • wears a different colored uniform
    • does not count against team substitutions
    • must sit out one rally between replacements
    • must be replaced by the individual for whom she originally entered the game
    • replaces back row players between the attack line and end line
    • must enter the game during a dead ball prior to the R1 beckoning for serve
    • cannot set the ball in the front zone with finger action that creates the completion of an attack
    • cannot attack the ball if it is above the height of the net
    • cannot serve the ball
    • cannot play in the front row
    • may serve as the team captain
libero rules
Libero Rules
  • If used, must be designated on the lineup sheet prior to each game
  • Must enter the game after starting lineup has been checked by the R2
  • May exercise one replacement per dead ball
  • Must enter and exit game between the attack line and the baseline
  • May be the team captain
  • May be used as an exceptional substitution for an injured player if no other legal substitutes are available
  • Shall not replace a disqualified teammate
  • Shall not block or attempt to block
  • Shall not serve
  • Shall not set the ball using overhand finger action while in front of the attack line extended, for an attack above the height of the net
libero quirks
Libero Quirks
  • If the libero gets injured, the person the libero replaced must re-enter the game, but can be substituted for by a legal substitute
  • If a player gets injured, the libero may replace the injured player as a regular player if no other legal substitute is available (a libero can no longer be used in the game)
  • The libero may not replace a disqualified player, nor may the libero be replaced if they become disqualified
  • An illegal libero replacement is penalized with a team delay prior to serve; after service contact the penalty is a position fault
  • The libero must change to the same uniform as the rest of team if they come in as an exceptional substitute
  • The libero may change uniform numbers if they come in as an exceptional substitution
  • A libero tracker is required at the scorer’s table (someone different than the scorekeeper)
tips for the new official getting started
Tips for the New Official – Getting Started
  • Review training slides
  • Review rules and case books
  • Ask questions
  • Sign up with MAC on the Arbiter
  • Purchase starter equipment
  • Maximize attendance at training events and scrimmages
volleyball basics
Volleyball Basics
  • Six players per team on the court
  • Three hits allowed per rally
  • No prolonged contact (lift/throw)
  • Identification of playable vs. non-playable areas (lines on court are in)
  • Point awarded per rally (exception play over)
  • Pre-match requirements
  • Match is 3 of 5 games to 25-points, if 5th game is required the game is to 15 points and the teams do not change sides at point 8 (no point cap and the team must win by 2 points) (JV best of 3 with 3rd game to 15 points)
officiating basics
Officiating Basics
  • Know the rules book(s)
  • Carry a spare whistle
  • Ask the host team which rules book governs the match (if NCAA/PAVO – libero differences, foot fault/interference differences, game point totals, switching in deciding game, coaching regulations, game equipment requirements, etc.)
  • Scan the gymnasium and determine playable vs. non-playable areas (what is out, what is re-playable, what is playable)
  • Inspect the gym and all equipment
  • Ask “Who is the game/event manager?”
  • Control the match
  • Be approachable
  • Make sure host team provides two game balls (minimum)
  • Coach/brief officiating crew on their responsibilities
officiating signals
Officiating Signals
  • Sequence
    • Whistle (pause, read, and react)
    • Infraction/foul
    • Result (point for one of the teams)
  • Team infractions supercede individual infractions
  • Mechanics differentiate officials
  • Proper signals prevent vocal explanation
  • Practice is the only way to get better (use a mirror)
officiating signals cont
Illegal alignment/improper server

Line violation

Illegal hit

Delay of service


Net Foul of Net Serve

Legal Back Row Attack

Illegal Attack of Serve/Back Row Attack

Illegal Block/Screen

Ball touched

Four hits

Double hit

Ball lands in-bounds

Out-of-bounds/antenna violation

Begin serve

Side-out (not used in rally scoring)



Substitution/Authorization to enter

Illegal substitution

Team Time-out

Officials Time-out

Unnecessary Delay

End of game

Change of courts

Contact below the waist

Officiating Signals cont
pre game duties responsibilities
Pre-game Duties & Responsibilities
  • Greet the coaches
  • Ask home team coach or captain which side they want for game 1
  • Determine game administrator – find out where he/she will be sitting during the match
  • Inspect the gymnasium
    • Determine playable and non-playable areas/obstructions (Rules to follow: 6’ from court lines or 23’ (7m) above the court surface)
      • Boundaries (playable vs. non-playable)
      • Which obstructions are part of the ceiling
      • Which obstructions are part of the wall
    • Other obstructions reducing playable area
      • Remove if possible
      • Otherwise, mitigate their presence
    • Inspect lines and court markings
      • All lines should have a contrasting color from the playing surface
      • All lines are 2” wide (5 cm)
      • Ensure the court has service area hash marks (6” long, 8” from end line)
pre game duties responsibilities cont
Pre-game Duties & Responsibilities cont
  • Inspect equipment
    • Net (help get height standardized during scrimmages)
      • Verify net height
        • (7’ 41/8th” at center and no > ¾” difference at the sides for girls)
        • (7’11&5/8th” at center and no > ¾” difference at the sides for boys)
      • Taut along the length of the net
      • Inspect for excessive tears and breaks in the nets (creating large holes/squares)
    • Antennas
      • < or = 3/8” in diameter w/ alternating colors – white and orange or red
      • Extending 2.5’ to 3.5’ above the height of the net
    • Standards and Supports (Ref Stand also)
      • Must be padded below 51/2’
      • Padding must be 1” (standards) 1/2” (supports)
      • All exposed steel cables at the top and bottom of the net are to be covered/padded
pre game duties responsibilities cont27
Pre-game Duties & Responsibilities cont
  • Inspect equipment (continued)
    • Volleyballs (ball must be white)
      • NFHS Logo
      • 4.3 – 4.6 lbs. per sq in. of pressure
      • No visible or surface defects (Mary said no game ball written on balls)
      • Ensure a minimum of 2 game balls available
      • Initial and date balls when checked
    • Team Benches
      • No closer than the attack line
      • > 6’ from the court
    • Scorekeeper’s Table
      • Opposite the Referee Stand
      • > 6’ from the sideline
      • Centered (preferably) on the center line

Pre-game Duties & Responsibilities cont

  • Conduct Pre-match Conference
    • See separate slide
  • Inspect players
    • No jewelry
    • Preventative Officiating
    • Uniform discrepancies
    • Religious or other exceptions (letters on file)
  • Brief Scorekeeper, Timer, Line Judges, and R2
    • See separate slide
  • Observe Warm-ups
    • Determine setters
    • Observe ball-handling skills
    • Control team activities, as needed (keep teams on their side of the net during warm-ups until their designated 5 minute warm-up period)
  • Verify team rosters and line-ups
the officiating team

The Officiating Team

R1/R2/Scorekeeper/Libero Tracker/Timer/Line Judges

r1 responsibilities remember you are in charge
R1 Responsibilities –Remember, you are in charge
  • Conduct the pre-match conference
  • Check the game ball
  • Inspect the court
  • Review duties with the umpire and line judges
  • Make decisions on matters not specifically covered by the rule
  • Blow the whistle for serve and dead ball
  • Recognize requests for substitution or time-out
  • Make ball handling decisions
  • Signal the result of each play or action/infraction
  • Scan the court before beckoning for serve
  • Make server foot fault calls
  • Responsible for the alignment of the serving team
  • Keep track of the number of hits by a team during play
  • Administer cards, as necessary
  • Signal the end of the game or the end of a time-out
pre match briefings to line judges scorekeeper libero tracker and timer
Pre-match Briefings to Line Judges, Scorekeeper, Libero Tracker and Timer
  • R1 briefs R2 and Line Judges on their responsibilities
  • R2 briefs scorekeepers, libero trackers and timers on their responsibilities (available NLT 20 minutes to game 1)
  • Short and rehearsed
  • Ask if the individual has performed their given function before (if yes, let them tell/show you their duties and make corrections as necessary)
  • If you need a cheat sheet, use Mary Donnellan’s sheet
r2 responsibilities remember you work for the r1 and are part of his her team
R2 Responsibilities –Remember, you work for the R1 and are part of his/her team
  • Supervise the positioning of team benches and the scorer’s table
  • Review duties with the scorers and timers
  • Check the team line-ups before the game
  • Administer time-outs and substitutions
  • Grant serving order requests (line up checks)
  • Echo signals made by the referee
  • Make net fault calls
  • Responsible for the net from the bottom of the top net cord to the ground
  • Make center line foot fault calls
  • Responsible for alignment of the receiving team
  • Make back row attack and block calls for the receiving team
  • Make ball handling calls when the referee is screened from the play
  • Keep time during time-outs
  • Verify the accuracy of the score sheet at the end of each game
  • Primarily responsible for bench control
r2 techniques mechanics
R2 Techniques / Mechanics
  • Maintain the tempo of the game/match
  • Scan both benches during dead balls (start with the serving team and then the receiving team)
  • Anticipate coaching moves
    • Substitutions
    • Time outs
  • Do not delay subs in the sub zone, expedite the substitution
    • Read player numbers as they approach the side line
    • Position yourself by the scorer’s table
  • Position yourself on the blocking team side of the net and transition to the other side before the 2nd team contact
  • Angle over distance (be able to see the entire length of the net and center line), do not get married to the support
r2 techniques mechanics cont
R2 Techniques / Mechanics cont
  • Control the scorer’s table (scorers, libero trackers and timers)
  • Establish a rapport with the scorer, libero tracker, timer, and coaches.
  • Maintain control of the benches
  • Hustle
  • Alter your position as required to get a better look at the net
  • Assist the referee in calling the match – Work as a team!
  • Maintain eye contact with the R1 when echoing signals
  • Do not hide behind the support when echoing signals
  • Take preventive measures to ensure you never have a team delay for the coach turning in a roster or line up late
  • If a libero is not listed on the team line up, ask the coach if they intend to use a libero in the game (provided the line up was provided within the required time)
scorekeeper responsibilities
Scorekeeper Responsibilities
  • Report NLT 20 minutes before match time
  • Receive team rosters 10 min before start of match
  • Receive line ups 2 min before end of warm ups and NLT 1 min before subsequent games
  • Complete the heading section of the score sheet
  • Record the score of the match
  • Record time outs
  • Record substitutions
  • Record comments
  • Record the final score for each game
  • Designate the serving order when requested
  • Notify R2 of discrepancies in the score
  • Notify the R2 when the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th substitutes are used by a team – also notify R2 of 19th substitute, if necessary
  • Notify R2 of improper servers
  • Notify R2 of illegal substitutions
  • Notify the R2 when game point is reached
  • The scorekeeper works for the R2 & is present 20 minutes before match start time
  • The timer and scorekeeper work in tandem
  • Scorekeeper must write small enough to record all activities
  • Scorekeeper records:
    • The starting line-up for each team in proper serving order
    • All information in the heading of the score sheet
    • Every play or action
      • Result of a serve
        • Point (in player’s scoring section corresponding to correct server)
        • Loss of Rally (-)
        • Slash or put a rectangle around team running score
      • Substitution (S or Sx #entering/#leaving) & slash total team substitute number
      • Time out (T or Tx score of team taking time out/score of opponent)
      • Penalty (P or Px)
      • Replay (R)
      • Re-serve (R-S)
scorekeeping cont
Scorekeeping cont.
  • Scorekeeper records:
    • Comments
      • Warnings (Y#_, Score of offending team – Opponent Score)
      • Penalties (R#_, Score of offending team – Opponent Score)
      • Disqualifications (DQ#_, Score of offending team – Opponent Score)
      • Uniform/Equipment Violations (E#_, Score of offending team – Opponent Score)
      • Unconscious Players (“unconscious player #_”)
      • Exceptional Substitutions (“exceptional sub, player # entering game/player coming out of game)
libero tracker responsibilities
Libero Tracker Responsibilities
  • Notify the R2 when a libero is/is not designated for a game by the teams prior to game start time
  • Communicate with the scorekeeper on libero replacements
  • Record all substitutions and libero replacements on the libero tracking sheet
  • Tell the R2 if the libero is replaced by an incorrect player or an undesignated libero enters the game
  • Notify the R2 if the libero does not stay out of the game for one rally between replacements
  • Sit next to the scorekeeper
timer responsibilities
Timer Responsibilities
  • Report 20 minutes before match time
  • Test timing device
  • Time pre-match warm up period (8,5,5,2)
  • Sit next to the scorekeeper
  • Work in tandem with scorekeeper
  • Keep time for team charged time-outs (45 sec and 60 sec audible sound)
  • Keep injury time outs (30 sec)
  • Time the period between games (3 minutes – audible sound at 2 min 45 sec and 3 min)
line judge responsibilities
Line Judge Responsibilities
  • Report NLT 20 minutes before match start time
  • Straddle the corner of the end and sideline
  • Stand at the intersection of the attack line and side line near the R1 during time outs
  • Watch for foot faults by the server
  • Signal when the ball is out-of-bounds
    • Lands outside the lines marking the court
    • Does not cross the vertical plane of the net between the antennas
    • Contacts any part of the net, antenna, support, structure, or ref stand outside of the antennas
    • Is out-of-bounds because of contact with an obstruction
  • Signal when the ball lands in bounds
  • Signal for touches
  • Signal if they do not see the play
  • Respond to all referee requests
line judges general
Line Judges - General
  • R1 briefs line judges
  • Line judges should be at the match NLT 20 minutes prior to match start time (our officials = 30 minutes)
  • If a MAC official, line judges do not check nets or balls (unless directed to do so by the R1)
  • R1 briefing should be quick and focus on the essentials
  • Line judges will wear the same uniform as other MAC officials if a MAC official (if parents or fans - adults only, no hats, no walkmans, no food or drinks near the court or in the possession of the line judge, proper decorum – remember they are part of your officiating crew)
  • If a line judge is a parent, they are not allowed to cheer for their team – they are part of the officiating crew
line judge briefings
Line Judge Briefings
  • Quick and to-the-point
    • 5 signals
      • Out
      • Touch
      • In
      • Service Fault
      • Did not see/no input call
  • Hints for line judges
    • Pick up the stationary object
      • Do not lock in on the ball for plays close to the line or near the net
      • Focus on the line first as ball crosses the line on a close play
      • Focus on blocker’s hands instead of keeping eyes on the ball
    • Line judge on the blocker side has responsibility for touch (however, other line judge may make a call if they see it)
    • Line judges should help with balls hitting overhead objects that go out-of-bounds
  • Responsibilities are limited to those delineated in the R1/Line judge briefing
  • Do not interact with coaches
  • During time outs come to the side of the R1 and stand at the intersection of the attack line and side line
  • Anticipate them (watch the setter, adjust your position as necessary to get a better look)
  • Look for the libero
  • Understand serving order and describe overlaps to coaches or captains using player’s numbers or physical location (e.g., # 3 is overlapped with # 9 or your right-back is overlapped with your right-front)
  • The server on the serving team may overlap with the center-back or left-back player (i.e., they can serve from anywhere along the end line)
  • At the time of the serve
    • All right-side players must have part of one foot closer to the right sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row
    • All left-side players must have part of one foot closer to the left sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row
    • All front row players must have part of one foot closer to the center line than both feet of their corresponding back row player
  • Rarely called
  • Requires two players close together or a player immediately in front of the server
  • R1 must determine
    • Defender’s ability to move one or two steps laterally to maintain same defensive posture
    • Trajectory of the serve
    • Serve must be to the screened player
    • Actions of screeners
  • Take Preventative Officiating Measures
pre match conference
Pre-Match Conference
  • R1, R2, Coaches, and Captains
  • 25 minutes before match starts (15 min by rules book)
  • R1 and R2 face the net side-by-side, coaches and captains face one another on their respective side of the center line
  • Topics to cover
    • Greetings
    • Rule changes
    • Uniforms and Equipment
    • Ground Rules
    • Pre-match Warm-up (8/5/5/2)
      • Fairfax County Schools – (shared court/home team/visiting team/shared serve)
      • Loudoun County Matches – (shared court/service team/receiving team/shared serve)
      • Loudoun Valley and Stone Bridge exceptions
      • Exceptions (transportation problem, multiple court warm-up opportunity, etc.)
    • Coin Toss
    • Salutations
uniforms equipment
Uniforms & Equipment
  • Verify with both coaches that all players are properly uniformed and equipped during the pre-match conference
  • Uniforms shall be worn properly and as designated by the manufacturer
    • All uniforms must be free of hard and unyielding items such as buttons, zippers, snaps, and fasteners
    • All players on a team will wear like-colored uniforms
    • Religious exceptions require a note on file from a church representative
    • If compression shorts are worn and exposed, they must be a similar color to the uniform bottom and all players on the team must have compression shorts
    • All shirts must have numbers (no more than 2 digits)
    • See Rule 4, Section 2 for dimensions on manufacturer’s logos and other patches allowed
uniforms equipment cont
Uniforms & Equipment cont
  • No jewelry
    • Anything on the wrist or around the neck is jewelry
    • No earrings (no studs) – taping not allowed (differs from USAV interpretation)
  • Nothing hard in the hair (soft items may be no more than 2” wide)
  • No artificial “hard” guard is allowed on fingers, hands, wrists, or forearms
  • Cover other supports and braces with padding (point of emphasis describes no hard guard more than half-way down forearm)
  • No equipment that increases a players advantage or is a safety concern (e.g., towel hanging from shorts)
  • No body paint or glitter on a player’s hair, face, uniform or body (nothing that can rub off onto the ball or the court)
  • Medical and religious medallions are allowed, but must be taped and worn under the uniform.
  • Penalty – Unnecessary delay – Team time out or point for the opponent if no time outs remain. 2nd equipment/uniform offense is a loss of rally (if applicable) and point for the opponent.
ground rules playable and non playable areas obstructions
Ground Rules (Playable and Non-playable areas/obstructions)
  • Court should be free of obstructions for 6’ from end lines and side lines
  • All overhead obstructions should be > than 23’ (7m) to be playable
  • All parts of a system (e.g. backboard, basket, net, and support) must be > 23’ to be playable
  • Make a judgment call on obstructions less than 23’ high or less than 6’ from court boundaries
    • Instant dead ball
    • Does a player have a play on the ball?
    • Consider trajectory, speed, height, etc.
  • Keep the area between the scorer’s table and benches free of debris and objects
  • Keep spectators off the first row of bleachers
  • If uncertain, ask your partner for advice, lastly ask the coach how they rule on something in their gymnasium that is peculiar
  • Coach has 30 seconds to determine:
    • Injured player will continue
    • There will be a substitution
      • If legal sub, injured player may return
      • If exceptional sub, injured player is out for the game
    • Time out requested by team
  • Be supportive of injury, but do not allow coach to extend time limits
  • Unconscious player (determination by R1)
    • Unavailable for the rest of the match without written doctor approval
  • Safely remove injured player from court
  • Bleeding injuries are treated as injury time outs
  • Injuries prior to game are not penalized by regular substitution procedures
use of penalty cards
Use of Penalty Cards
  • Use preventative officiating first
  • Cards are cumulative in a match and carry over from previous games
  • Officials do not have to issue a yellow card before issuing a red card or a red card before a disqualification
  • R1 administers cards, R2 may request cards
  • The scorekeeper records the penalty in the comments section of the score sheet
  • Remember that a yellow card is only a warning
  • Use cards for unsportsmanlike conduct
  • Use yellow cards for:
    • Warning for minor offenses
    • Coaches repeatedly ignoring instructions from the R2 or R1
    • Players other than the captain addressing the R1 or commenting about ball handling calls or complaining on the court
    • Use of illegal equipment
    • Coach or player attempting to grandstand
use of penalty cards cont
Use of Penalty Cards cont
  • Use Red Cards for:
    • Serious misconduct
    • Swearing
    • Taunting an opponent
    • Use of tobacco
    • Repeat offenses that have already received a yellow card
  • Disqualification should occur when:
    • A player or coach commits a second serious offense or third minor offense
    • Fighting
    • Injuring another player intentionally
  • Degree of offense and level of card (yellow vs. red vs. yellow/red) is at the discretion of the R1 and is not subject to protest
maintaining bench decorum and court control
Maintaining Bench Decorum and Court Control
  • Put the impetus on the captain and coach for enforcement
  • Coaches and players on the bench must remain seated during play except to greet a substitute, call for a substitution or time-out, or to express enthusiasm for a good play (Describe new test/experiment for 2005)
  • Beckon the captain to relay messages to the coach and or team mates on the bench
  • Use a hand gesture to warn the coach
  • Do not allow taunting or disrespectful behavior
  • Do not allow coaches to attempt to influence calls
  • All requests to the scorer’s table should go through the R2
  • 18 team substitutions per game
  • Players must substitute into the same position in the line-up
  • More than one substitution is permitted by a team during a time out if made through the same request for substitution or does not otherwise delay the game
  • A sub may be requested by a coach or by a player walking into the substitution zone (between attack line and center line)
  • Substitution is not allowed prior to the start of the game
  • Improper substitution is corrected and coaches and players are warned; subsequent/repeated offenses may be penalized with a team delay
  • Delayed substitution is a team delay
  • Illegal substitution is a team delay
    • Adjudication is based on time that the illegal substitute is recognize, if in the game
    • Illegal player is replaced by a legal player immediately
tough rules plays
Tough Rules/Plays
  • Finger Action
  • In Play vs. Out of Play
  • Team vs. Individual faults
  • Back row fouls
  • Improper server / illegal substitution
  • Variations in foot faults or situations creating interference
media photographers
  • Where can they stand/sit?
    • Non-playable areas
    • Coach’s discretion in non-playable area
  • Focus on safety of players
  • No flash photography during live balls/play (from the time the R1 beckons for serve until the whistle is blown signaling a dead ball)
becoming a better vb official
Becoming a Better VB Official
  • Review the Rules Book
  • Receive guidance from higher rated officials
  • Review/subscribe to available VB publications/periodicals
  • Become certified as a USAV and PAVO VB official
  • Study the game
  • Get as much feedback as possible
  • Request as many evaluations as possible
  • Don’t worry about making mistakes
  • Challenge yourself
  • Tell someone on the training committee you want to move to the next level
  • Practice your mechanics (use the mirror or a partner for feedback)
  • Conduct an honest self assessment & ask for assistance from fellow VB officials
usav pavo
  • Local USAV Region is Chesapeake Region Volleyball Association (CHRVA)
  • CHRVA web site is
  • Web site provides links to other volleyball associations and to a Referee page
  • Most coaches and players participate in USAV juniors program and/or play in the adult program
  • You must be USAV certified to officiate recreation VB in the area
  • Regional USAV certification is required to officiate college matches in the area (PAVO is the governing body)
  • USAV certification requires a commitment
    • 6 – 8 hour clinic
    • 5 passing recommendations
      • 3 R1 passing ratings
      • 2 scorekeeper passing ratings
      • 3 days worth of effort
  • Involvement in USAV and PAVO leads to recognition by players, coaches, and fellow referees
  • USAV clinics are typically in the mid to late October timeframe
  • PAVO clinic is held in August and is required to referee college VB