Chapter-7(Seven)Methods of Training Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd EditionP. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker Human Resource Management Gary Dessler Employee Training and Development,4th Edition Raymond A Noe
The Training Process • Training • The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. • The strategic context of training • Performance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals. • Web-based training • Distance learning-based training • Cross-cultural diversity training
The Training and Development Process • Needs analysis • Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives. • Instructional design • Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities. • Validation • Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience. • Implement the program • Actually training the targeted employee group. • Evaluation • Assesses the program’s successes or failures.
Make the Learning Meaningful • At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented to facilitates learning. • Use a variety of familiar examples. • Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. • Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. • Use as many visual aids as possible.
Make Skills Transfer Easy • Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. • Provide adequate practice. • Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. • Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. • Provide “heads-up” preparatory information that lets trainees know they might happen back on the job.
Motivate the Learner • People learn best by doing so provide as much realistic practice as possible. • Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses • Trainees learn best at their own pace. • Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. • The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, less than full day training is most effective.
Methods Of Training And Development Used In Bangladesh: Basically training methods are of two types viz., On-the-Job method and Off-the-job methods. On-the-Job methods is used with the participant or employees during the working hours and while staying in the organization. Off-the job training methods is used outside the working hour and in the separate training institutes may be internal and external.
Methods Of Training Used In Bangladesh: Under these two methods a several methods are being used by different organization. A substantial number of training and development methods are used in different institutes in Bangladesh. But all methods are not used in all organization in totality. Information has been collected about these methods usually used in training and development institutes in Bangladesh.
Steps in OJT • Step 1: Prepare the learner • Put the learner at ease—relieve the tension. • Explain why he or she is being taught. • Create interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other jobs. • Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows. • Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible. • Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade terms.
Steps in OJT (cont’d) • Step 2: Present the operation • Explain quantity and quality requirements. • Go through the job at the normal work pace. • Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made. • Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points. • Have the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow pace.
Steps in OJT (cont’d) • Step 3: Do a tryout • Have the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step to you. • Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times. • Run the job at the normal pace. • Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. • As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but don’t abandon him or her.
Steps in OJT (cont’d) • Step 4: Follow up • Designate to whom the learner should go for help. • Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity standards. • Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior. • Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity standards.
On-the Job Training Methods: A comprehensive on –the job training program may contain multiple methods. The traini9ng is imparted on the job and the employee gets training under the same environment where he has to work. This system is very cost effective and popular. The following methods of training fall under this category. 1. Coaching: This method involves teaching by a superior about this knowledge and skills of a job to the junior or subordinate. This superior points out the mistake committed by the trainee and makes suggestions wherever and whenever necessary.
On-the Job Training Methods: 2. Understudy method: This methods involves a superior providing training to his subordinate as his understudy. The chosen trainee subordinate is most likely to be promoted to the higher post after the retirement or promotion of his superior under whom he is receiving training. The trainee is the boss under making. It is a kind of mentoring to help the employee to learn the skills of superior position.
On-the Job Training Methods: 3. Position rotation or job rotation: This method involves movement of employees to different jobs to gain knowledge and functioning of various jobs within the organization. The incumbent thus realize the problem and working of the job and develops respect for the fellow employees. Banks and insurance companies among service sector also follow this approach. This method is also known as cross training.
On-the Job Training Methods: 4. Job instruction training(JIT): In this methods a supervisor explains the knowledge, skill and the method of doing the job to the trainee employee. The supervisor then asks the trainee to do the job himself. The supervisor provides the feedback. This is an effective method of training the operative staff in the industrial establishment.
On-the Job Training Methods: 5. Committee assignment: In this method a committee consisting of a group of employees are given a problem and submit the solution. The object of this method is to develop a teamwork among the employees. 6 . Apprenticeship training: This type of training is essential for filling up positions requiring technical skills. The trainees are known as apprentices. The object is to improve them to perform efficiently the assigned job. The period of training ranges from one year to four years. The technical knowledge is given to the trainees in various trades. If there exists a vacancy in the unit the trainee is absorbed. During the training period a stipend is paid to the trainee.
On-the Job Training Methods: 7. Special meetings of the staff: special meetings of the staff of the department are held periodically to discuss the problems faced by the employee during the performance of the jobs and suggestions are invite to improve performance of the job. These meeting are conducted by taking a retreat from the work for a short while. Here employees and supervisors provide feedback.
Advantages of On-the-job Methods Advantages • No special space or equipment • Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing • Earn/produce while learning • Relevant reinforcements • Learning environment same as working environment
Disadvantages of On-the-job Methods Disadvantages • Tie up expensive equipment • Waste may be high • Customer problems • “Trainer” may not be skilled • Pressure of job demands
Off -the-job Training Methods Under this system of training a trainee is taken off from the job and separated from his work situation so that he can fully concentrate on learning and acquiring the knowledge and skills related to the performance of job in a free environment. He is allowed to express freely. The following are some of the training methods under off-the-job category
Off -the-job Training Methods • Vestibule training • Lecture method • Role playing • Conference and seminars • Films and slide show • Programmed instructions • University and college courses
Off -the-job Training Methods 1.Vestibule training: Under this method, training is provided in a classroom where the actual working situation is created. The tools and equipment, files and other related materials are used in imparting knowledge and skills related to the job by actually performing it at the vestibule school. This system of training is mostly suitable for the staff of clerical and semiskilled grades. The theory and practical knowledge related with the job performance is taught to the employee. The duration of training ranges from a week to a fortnight.
Off -the-job Training Methods 2.Lecture-based trainingLecture-based training is one of the most popular types of training. In this training method, a trainer (or "lecturer") gives a presentation or talk to a group of trainees. This method is good for basic training that can be delivered in a group setting. Lecture-based training is often used to deliver sessions on topics that require little trainee participation and feedback, such as basic safety training or information on company policies. Lecture-based training is not well-suited to topics that require a lot of trainee interaction or the use of role play to reinforce concepts.
Effective lectures • Use signals to help listeners follow your ideas. • Don’t start out on the wrong foot. • Keep your conclusions short. • Be alert to your audience. • Maintain eye contact with the trainees. • Make sure everyone in the room can hear. • Control your hands. • Talk from notes rather than from a script. • Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.
Lecture Advantages • Economical – large amounts of information to large numbers of trainees • Can be organized/structured/time efficient Criticisms • One-way flow • Start up costs • Best for cognitive principles, facts rather than skills • Stress on verbal and symbolic understanding • Ignores individual differences
Off -the-job Training Methods 3. Role playing: One of the most effective training methods is role playing. Not just for sales or customer service training, this technique is an excellent way to achieve a number of benefits for employees, management and support people. Role playing is not just "practicing working with an imaginary customer out loud." Role playing allows a group of employees to act out work scenarios. It opens communications, and for the amount of time when it puts a player 'on-the-spot,' it also gives a great deal of confidence and develops camaraderie among those participating in (doing) the role play situations. For instance, you might train salespeople by having two people act out a 'sales' scenario. One acts as the salesperson, the other acts as the customer. This allows salespeople to practice their sales techniques. A trainer and/or other trainees may watch the role play and critique it afterward Role playing can be used in every department by management and employees to practice business situations.
Off -the-job Training Methods 6.Conference and seminars: Conferences and seminars are the common methods of training. Participants gain knowledge and understanding by attending these conferences and seminars and actively participating in the proceeding. Group discussions, exchange of ideas and opinions take place which help the participants develop leadership qualities. Two-way communication in this method proves to be effective. This system is more effective for employees of clerical, professional and supervisory levels.
Off -the-job Training Methods 7. Films and slide show: This is an effective technique of training. It is the medium through which information, knowledge and skills relating to job performance with demonstration can be presented more effective than in other methods. Multimedia also can be utilized under this methods.
Off -the-job Training Methods 8. Programmed instructions: This is the recently developed technique which is gaining popularity. The subject matter to be learned is condensed into logical sequence. The participant has to answer. The special feature of this technique is that it provides instant feedback. The trainee thus knows whether his answer is correct or not. Today a number of books and manuals are available in the market.
Off -the-job Training Methods 9. University and college courses: Many colleges and universities run part time and evening specialized courses to suit the working class. These courses include the areas of finance, accounting, personnel, management, marketing and materials management, computer software etc. The employee can be sponsored for doing such courses by their establishments.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Off-the-job Methods Advantages • Variety of training techniques • Learning climate • Economy – number of trainees • Don’t tie up expensive equipment/waste Disadvantages • Increased costs – equipment/space • Transfer issues
Discussion Advantages • Two-way communication allows feedback, clarification, sharing views Limitations • Needs skilled discussion leader • Time • Trainees need common reference point • Size of group
Training Methods - CBT Computer-Based Training (CBT): “any training program that occurs through the use of a computer”. • Programmed instruction (PI): foundation of CBT and is method of self-paced instruction. • Used best to increase declarative knowledge.
Computer-based Training (CBT) • Types of CBT • Intelligent Tutoring systems • Interactive multimedia training • Virtual reality training • Advantages: • Reduced learning time • Cost-effectiveness • Instructional consistency
Intelligent Tutoring Systems Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS): • Next generation of programmed instruction • Uses artificial intelligence to: • generate instruction that matches the trainee’s individual needs. • communicate and respond to trainees questions. • learn from the responses of the trainee what approach to take in teaching the trainee.
Intelligent Tutoring Systems Component of ITS: • Domain expert – knowledge about the best way to perform task (called the expert knowledge database) • Trainee model – stores information about trainee’s performance • Trainee session manager – interprets trainee’s responses by responding with coaching or tutoring • User interface – is the equipment that allows the trainee to interact with the ITS (computer keyboard, mouse, or joystick)
Interactive Multimedia • Interactive Multimedia Training: “integrates the use of text, video, graphics, photos, animation, and sound to produce training” • In the form of computer-based simulation • Job specific • Example: (Action 6-2)
Virtual Reality Training (VR) • Virtual Reality Training: “Puts the trainee in an artificial three-dimensional environment that simulates events & situations experienced on the job” • 3-D learning simulation using devices such as: headsets, gloves, & treadmills
CBT - Challenges CBT Challenges: • Lacks face-to-face contact or interaction • Requires self-motivation to complete • High developmental costs • Trainees must be computer literate • Potentially brief shelf-life • High degree of computer literacy to develop CBT training material
Distance and Internet-Based Training • Tele-training • A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via TV hookups. • Videoconferencing • Interactively training employees who are geographically separated from each other—or from the trainer—via a combination of audio and visual equipment. • Training via the Internet • Using the Internet or proprietary internal intranets to facilitate computer-based training.
What Is Management Development? • Management development • Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. • Succession planning • A process through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled. • Anticipate management needs • Review firm’s management skills inventory • Create replacement charts • Begin management development
Managerial on-the-Job Training • Job rotation • Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. • Coaching/Understudy approach • The trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the trainee’s coaching. • Action learning • Management trainees are allowed to work full-time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques • Case study method • Managers are presented with a description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve. • Management game • Teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated situations. • Outside seminars • Many companies and universities offer Web-based and traditional management development seminars and conferences.
Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques (cont’d) • Role playing • Creating a realistic situation in which trainees assume the roles of persons in that situation. • Behavior modeling • Modeling: showing trainees the right (or “model”) way of doing something. • Role playing: having trainees practice that way • Social reinforcement: giving feedback on the trainees’ performance. • Transfer of learning: Encouraging trainees apply their skills on the job.