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Andrew Jackson: 1767 - 1845. Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Essential Question:. Champion of the “Common Man”?. “King” Andrew?. OR. What were the democratic trends in the 19c?. Voting Requirements in the Early 19c. Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Andrew Jackson:

1767 - 1845

Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

slide2

Essential Question:

Champion of the “Common Man”?

“King”Andrew?

OR

slide3

What were the

democratic

trends

in the 19c?

slide7

Why Increased Democratization?

  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees.
  • Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election:
    • Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs (1832)  Republicans (1854)
    • Democrats (1828)
slide8

Jackson's

Early

Life

slide12

Jackson's

First

Presidential Run

slide14

Jackson’s Opponents in 1824

Henry Clay[KY]

John Quincy Adams[MA]

John C. Calhoun[SC]

William H. Crawford[GA]

slide15

Results of the 1824 Election

A “Corrupt Bargain?”

slide16

John Quincy Adams

Administration

(1825-1829)

slide17

Opposition to John Quincy Adams

  • Some believed he allowed too much political control to be held by elites.
  • Some objected to his support of national economic development on constitutional grounds.
    • Adams believed a strong, active central government was necessary.
      • A national university.
      • An astronomical observatory.
      • A naval academy.
  • Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a might nation led by a strong president as a threat to individual liberties.
slide18

What were

the key issues

in 1828?

slide19

The

“Tariff

of

Abomination”

slide20

Tariff Battles

  • Tariff of 1816  on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824  on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828  higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp].
    • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY.
    • The South alone was adamantly against it.
      • As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff.
      • They were negatively impacted  American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
slide22

Land & Indian Policies

  • John Quincy Adams:
    • His land policies gave westerners anothr reason to dislike him.
      • He attempted to curb speculation for public lands  his opponent accused him of denying their individual rights and freedoms to expand westward!
    • He supported the land rights of Native Americans against white settlers.
      • 1825  govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights to GA.
        • The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce the treaty.
        • Congress sided with the governor of GA.
slide23

The 1828 Election

  • Jackson’s campaign was engineered by Senator Martin Van Buren of NY
    • He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian coalition of:
      • Northern farmers and artisans.
      • Southern slave owners.
      • Farmers with small land holdings.
    • He created the Democratic Party from the remains of Jefferson’s old party:
      • Created a national committee that oversaw local and state party units.
      • Mass meetings, parades, picnics.
    • A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.
slide24

Rachel Jackson

Final Divorce Decree

slide28

The New “Jackson Coalition”

  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • Artisans [competition from factory labor].
  • State Politicians spoils system
    • To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy! [William Marcy of NY]
  • Immigrants in the cities.
slide30

Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man”

  • Intense distrust of Eastern“establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege.
  • His heart & soul was with the“plain folk.”
  • Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
slide34

The

Nullification

Issue

slide35

The Webster-Hayne Debate

Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]

Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]

slide36

1830

Webster:Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

Jackson:Our Federal Union—it must be preserved.

Calhoun:The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.

slide38

1832 Tariff Conflict

  • 1832 --> new tariff
  • South Carolina’s reaction?
  • Jackson’s response?
  • Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?
slide40

Jackson's

Native-American

Policy

slide41

Indian Removal

  • Jackson’s Goal?
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA(1831)* “domestic dependent nation”
  • Worcester v. GA(1832)
  • Jackson:John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!
slide47

Renewing

the Charter

of the

2nd National Bank

slide48

Jackson’s Use of Federal Power

VETO

1830 Maysville Roadproject in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]

slide49

The National Bank Debate

PresidentJackson

NicholasBiddle[an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia]

slide50

Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.

“Soft”(paper) $

“Hard”(specie) $

  • state bankers feltit restrained theirbanks from issuingbank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth & speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safecurrency.
  • didn’t like any bankthat issued banknotes.
  • suspicious of expansion &speculation.
slide51

The “Monster” Is Destroyed!

  • “Pet Banks”
  • 1832  Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank of the United States.
  • 1836  the charter expired.
  • 1841  the bank went bankrupt!
slide53

The Bank & the 1832 Election

  • Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an attempt to block his re-election!
    • Biddle & his associates preferred Clay.
    • Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-charter.
      • The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will destroy it!
    • Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van Buren.
    • BUT, both parties [Democrats & Whigs] had contradictory positions regarding their party principles, to many of the issues of the day!
slide54

An 1832 Cartoon:

“KingAndrew”?

slide55

Positions on the Key Issues of 1832

WHIGS

DEMOCRATS

  • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was alarming.
  • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets.
  • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper.
  • For Indian removal.
  • Oppose tariffs.
  • States’ rights.
  • Oppose federal support for internal improvements.
  • Opposed the National Bank.
  • Less concerned about the widening gap between rich and poor.
  • Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos.
  • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical.
  • Opposes Indian removal.
  • Favored tariffs.
  • Supported a National Bank.
slide57

The 1836 Election Results

Martin Van Buren

“Old Kinderhook”[O. K.]

slide58

The Specie Circular (1836)

  • Speculators created “wildcat banks” that fueled the runaway inflation.
  • So, buy future federal land only with gold or silver.
    • This move shocked the system.
  • Jackson’s goal  to curb the land speculation.
slide59

Results of the Specie Circular

  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!