. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes)
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. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes)

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  1. . South America – physical • Eastern Highlands • Central lowlands • Western Highlands (Andes)

  2. Special Environments • Amazon rainforest • Atacama Desert

  3. II. South American Indigenous culture A. Nazca (200BC-700AD)

  4. B. Inca (1200-1535 AD)

  5. Arrival of Europeans • A. Spanish/Portuguese • B. British • C. French

  6. D. Impact of colonialism 1. Best land appropriated by colonists (haciendas) 2. Land for food crops converted to cash crops (plantations) 3. Demographic decline – 90% by 1650 99% in Caribbean islands 4. Introduction of new foods, animals, technology

  7. E. African slave trade

  8. III. URBANIZATION - A. Spanish grid city B. Modern cities

  9. C. Primate cities - push/pull factors Mexico City Brazilian favela

  10. From Clawson, Latin America and the Caribbean 4th ed

  11. IV. Economic Development • A. Primary sector • Agriculture – hacienda, plantation • hacienda • spanish institution • not efficient but social prestige • workers lived on the land • plantation • export oriented monocrops • imported capital and skills • seasonal labor • efficiency is key

  12. 2. Mining – oil and natural gas

  13. Secondary sector (manufacturing) • 1. Mexico and maquiladoras • Modern industrial plants • Assemble imported, duty-free components • Export the finished products • Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan) • 80% of goods reexported to U.S. • Tariffs limited to value added during assembly

  14. Brazil • Manaus Free Trade Zone • Grande Carajas Project • Highway BR 364

  15. Tertiary sector • Tourism – Caribbean, Mexico • Positives – foreign currency, jobs, develop infrastructure • Negatives – “leakage,” “enclave economy,” higher cost of living, higher property values

  16. V. Political A. Cuba – Castro wet-foot dry-foot policy Guantanamo Bay B. Puerto Rico - Commonwealth