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. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes)

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. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes). Special Environments Amazon rainforest Atacama Desert . II. South American Indigenous culture A. Nazca (200BC-700AD ). B. Inca (1200-1535 AD). Arrival of Europeans A. Spanish/Portuguese

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Presentation Transcript
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. South America – physical
  • Eastern Highlands
  • Central lowlands
  • Western Highlands (Andes)
slide2
Special Environments
  • Amazon rainforest
  • Atacama Desert
slide5
Arrival of Europeans
  • A. Spanish/Portuguese
  • B. British
  • C. French
slide6
D. Impact of colonialism

1. Best land appropriated by colonists (haciendas)

2. Land for food crops converted to cash crops (plantations)

3. Demographic decline – 90% by 1650

99% in Caribbean islands

4. Introduction of new foods, animals, technology

slide8
III. URBANIZATION -

A. Spanish grid city

B. Modern cities

slide9
C. Primate cities - push/pull factors

Mexico City

Brazilian favela

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IV. Economic Development
  • A. Primary sector
  • Agriculture – hacienda, plantation
  • hacienda
    • spanish institution
    • not efficient but social prestige
    • workers lived on the land
  • plantation
    • export oriented monocrops
    • imported capital and skills
    • seasonal labor
    • efficiency is key
slide14
Secondary sector (manufacturing)
  • 1. Mexico and maquiladoras
  • Modern industrial plants
  • Assemble imported, duty-free components
  • Export the finished products
  • Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan)
  • 80% of goods reexported to U.S.
  • Tariffs limited to value added during assembly
slide15
Brazil
  • Manaus Free Trade Zone
  • Grande Carajas Project
  • Highway BR 364
slide16
Tertiary sector
  • Tourism – Caribbean, Mexico
  • Positives – foreign currency, jobs, develop infrastructure
  • Negatives – “leakage,” “enclave economy,” higher cost of living, higher property values
slide17
V. Political

A. Cuba – Castro

wet-foot dry-foot policy

Guantanamo Bay

B. Puerto Rico - Commonwealth

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