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Solar Energy

Solar Energy

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Solar Energy

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  1. Solar Energy

  2. Solar energy has been an under-achiever Source: U.S. Department of Energy

  3. http://symposium2011.serdp-estcp.org/Technical-Sessions/3C

  4. Solar Energy Has A Long History • 2500+ years • Passive – take advantage of ambient conditions • 250+ years • Active Loop – capture, store, & deliver thermal energy • 50+ years • Photovoltaics – convert sunlight into electricity • 25+ years • Hybrid Systems - concentrating collectors & others

  5. Passive solar collectors can be as simple as a house designed to take advantage of daylighting.

  6. Passive solar heating recognizes the seasonal position of the sun.

  7. Passive Day Lighting System • tracking dish to collect sunlight • visible spectrum transmitted using fiber optics • packaged like a fluorescent light • commercialization underway by Oak Ridge Lab

  8. Active loops capture, store, and distribute heat.

  9. Subtle details influence energy recovery for active loops

  10. Photovoltaics capture, store, and distribute electricity.

  11. How does a photovoltaic cell work? http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/solarcells.htm

  12. Optimum Mounting Angle • Solar tracking systems improve overall efficiency up to 30% by keeping panels perpendicular to the sun. • A fixed panel set at the same angle as the latitude of the site will receive the maximum annual solar radiation. • If the load demand is high in the winter (northern hemisphere), set the panel tilt at latitude plus 15°. • If the load demand is higher in the summer (northern hemisphere) set the array tilt angle at latitude minus 15°.

  13. Solana 280 MW CSP plant in Arizona3 square miles of mirrors

  14. Solar Energy Influenced by: • atmospheric conditions • geographic location • time of day • pollution • season

  15. Solar energy is impressive on sunny days…

  16. …but there’s not much solar energy on cloudy days

  17. Solar energy changes seasonally

  18. Average sunshine hours (hr/day) Sizing a Photovoltaic Array Electric Loads daily energy requirements (kW-hr)/day Array Size in kW = How much solar energy is available?

  19. Quantifying Home Electric Loads • Search using some of the following terms • Residential • Electric • Calculator • http://www.nhec.com/residential_energycalculators.php • http://www.tampaelectric.com/TEHMEnergySaversCalc.html

  20. Web-Based PV Array Sizing • Combine the power of • Mapping programs • PV sizing algorithms • Satellite-based weather data • Databases of rebates, tax credits, and other incentives • http://www.nrel.gov/eis/imby/

  21. Solar energy challenges • Better methods of energy storage • Cheaper manufacturing methods • Better installation techniques • Higher efficiency

  22. pro’s free, renewable, and non-polluting provides day-lighting, heat, & electricity low maintenance independence con’s more expensive than conventional power energy source fluctuates Is solar energy a viable option? must evaluate case-by-case