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A virtual backpack journey in Europe through the 20th century. Let’s go to the cold Norway and let’s do two famous sports…. Let's see the Norwegian Winter!. Skiing as a sport has been a great success for more than 100 years.

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A virtual backpack journey in Europe through the 20th century

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Skiing as a sport has been a great success for more than 100 years.

In Norway, on the island of Roday, the explorers found a rock scratch portraying a ski-men.

So skiing came from Northern-Europe.

First of all, people used skiing for military aims, and then they used it in the every-day life.

In 1868 a Norwegian man, called Sondre Nordheim revolutionized skiing.

From this time on, skiing was considered to be a very popular sport…


In 1965 Sherman Poppen saw his daughter sliding down the hillside just as she was standing on a sledge, so he quickly made a board which is thought to be the „father of snowboard.” It was a great success.

Later Jake Burton Carpenter revolutionized snowboarding in 1968, which was called „snurfer” then. In 1977 Jake established a factory.

On the ski-course the skimen were not happy to see the spreading of the snowboard. According to them the snowboard wasn’t safe, that’s why they quarrelled a lot. Borders then went to the courses and they were supposed to be „bustards”.

Today they became calm and the skiers are skiing on the skicourses, while boarders are looking for the opportunity to do their sport in the pure snow or halfpipe…





After the cold winter of Norway, let’s go to Germany and find out information about BMW, king of cars.


The History of BMW

Although BMW's current fame and reputation as one of the greatest automobile manufacturers can be mostly linked to models produced in the last two decades, the history of the marque stretches back almost 90 years and contains numerous achievements that have established it as a benchmark.

The origins of BMW traces back to 1913 when Karl Friedrich Rapp, a Bavarian who had been a well-known engineer in a German aircraft company, formed Rapp Motoren Werke in a suburb of Munich. The company specialized in airplane engines however Rapp found that they were problematic and suffered from excessive vibration. Nearby, Gustav Otto, also an airplane specialist, set up his own shop, Gustav Flugmaschinefabrik, building small aircraft.

Because of the faulty engines, Rapp Motoren Werke secured a contract with Austro-Daimler, who was unable to meet its demands, to build V12 Aero engines under license. The company expanded too quickly, however, and by 1916 Rapp resigned from the company because of financial troubles. In his place Franz Josef Popp and Max Friz, two Austrians, took over the company. In March the same year, Rapp Motoren Werke merged with Gustav Flugmaschinefabrik to form Bayersiche Flugzeungwerke. Shortly afterwards they renamed Bayersiche Motoren Werke (Bavarian Motor Works), or BMW, forming the company we know today.

In 1917, BMW's first aircraft engine went into production, the 6 cylinder Type IIIa. In 1919, using an aircraft powered by its successor, the Type IV, Franz Zeno Diemer set an altitude record of 9,760 metres (32,013 ft). After the Treaty of Versailles was signed in the same year, prohibiting BMW from building aircraft engines, production switched to air brakes for railway cars. When BMW started once again to build aircraft engines in 1922, not fewer than 29 world records in aviation were set with them. The current BMW logo, introduced in 1920, was based on the circular design of an aircraft propeller.

The first BMW motorcycle, the R 32, went into production in 1923 at the newly constructed Eisenach factory next to the Munich airport of the day. The R 32 used a flat-twin engine transversely mounted in a double-tubular frame producing 8.5 horsepower at 3300 rpm. The 2-cylinder 494cc motorcycle could reach a top speed of 59 mph (95 km/h). BMW manufactured 3090 of them during its 3 year life span.

It was 1928 that made history in terms of the BMW car. Produced at the Eisenbach factory, the Dixi 3/15 PS marked the beginning of BMW automobile production. It was built under license from Austin and was essentially the same model as the US Bantam and the Japanese Datsun. The first Dixis used an open roof and were powered by a 743cc 4 cylinder engine producing 15 horsepower. Top speed was in the neighbourhood of 50 mph (80 km/h). In 1929 a new improved version was launched, the DA2, which


employed an all-steel body and 4-wheel brakes, and in 1930 the Dixi scored its first wins in motor racing. Total production: 18,976 units.

1932 was the year the BMW AM 4 (Ausfuhrung Munchen 4 Gange - Munich Version 4 Speeds) - a.k.a. BMW's first "real" car - went into production. The AM 4, also called the 3/20 PS, was the successor to the Dixi and the first production car to be built entirely in-house by BMW. The powerplant was a 782cc 4 cylinder unit which featured suspended valves and a double chain driving the camshafts, producing 20 horsepower at 3500 rpm and providing the saloon with a 50 mph top speed.

The next year mark ed the introduction of the 303 saloon and the first BMW inline-six cylinder power unit, a configuration that remains BMW's typical choice even in contemporary cars. The 303 was also the first BMW to use the twin-kidney shaped radiator grilles, another cur rent trademark. Using a welded tubular steel frame, independent front suspension and rack and pinion steering, the 303 was a benchmark in technological achievements. Its 1173cc engine provided 30 horsepower and a top speed of 56 mph (90 km/h).

3 years later, in 1936, the BMW 328 was introduced. It was the most popular and remains BMW's most famous pre-war sports car, the successor to the 315/1 (1934-36). The 328 was built mainly for motor sport, where it proved itself successful by winning the Mille Miglia in Italy in its class in 1938, but quickly became a popular road car as well. A curb weight of only 1830 lb was achieved through the use of an extra-light tubular spaceframe and light alloy parts for the hood, doors and tail end. Using a 1971cc inline-6 cylinder engine with three carburettors that produced a healthy 80 horsepower at 5000 rpm, the 328 could reach a maximum speed of 93 mph (150 km/h). 462 units of this classic were produced in total.

In 1935 BMW entered the record books once again, this time on two wheels. Riding a streamlined 500cc compressor machine developing 108 hp and an amazing power-to-weigh ratio (282 lb curb weight), Ernst Henne set a world speed record for motorcycles of 173.7 mph (279.5 km/h) in 1937. It stood for nearly two decades.

BMW's success was unfortunately short lived. After the Second World War, the company lay in ruins. Its factories had been destroyed or dismantled and a three-year ban on any production activities was imposed by the Allies in response to the production of aircraft engines and rockets by BMW during the War. The first post war model, the V8 equipped 501 luxury sedan produced in 1951 was a poor production choice for a country that was also devastated by the war. Demand was low and the 501 did not even com e close to meeting BMW's expectations.

It was a totally different approach that started to bring BMW back on its feet. In 1955, the Isetta 250 was launched and participated very successfully in the mini-car era of the 1950's. It was built under license from the Italian manufacturer Iso and used a motorcycle engine and a single door at the front. The engine was a single cylinder 245cc unit producing 12 horsepower at 5800


rpm and a top speed of 53 mph (85 km/h). During its 7 year production run a total of 161,728 Isettas were built.

A couple of years later, with BMW still having no secure financial foothold, one of the most memorable models in its history was introduced. Launched in 1956, the BMW 507 quickly became famous. The light-alloy 2-door bodyshell with a retractable soft top, designed by Alberecht Graf Foertz, has remained timeless as evidenced by the newly introduced Z8, which draws unmistakable clues and its overall shape from it. A large 3168cc V8 engine using dual downdraught carburettors powered the 507 and provided 150 horsepower at 5000rpm, enough for an impressive 124 mph top speed (200 km/h) but not enough to topple its main rival, the Mercedes 300SL. While only 252 examples of the instantly recognizable 507 were ever produced, it remains a symbol of BMW's struggles and ultimate triumphs during the fifties after the end of the War.

The next step in BMW's evolution and the predecessor to the cars we know today was launched in 1962. The 1500, which had been developed during the crisis of the '50s, was another of BMW's saviors. The excellent suspension and striking design for its time, employing a low waistline with a low-slung engine compartment and rear lid characterized the 1500. A 1499cc 4-cylinder engine producing 80 horsepower at 5700 rpm and providing a top speed of 92 mph (148 km/h) powered it. During its two year production run sales amounted to only 23,807 units; however between all of the models in its range (1500,1600,1800,2000) production totaled 334,165 cars. Based on these cars, the first generation 5 series, the E12, was launched 10 years later in 1972. The 3 series was introduced 3 years later and the 7 series 2 years after that, in 1977.

In 1990 BMW re-entered the aircraft engine manufacturing business after forming BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH jointly with Rolls Royce. In 1998, after extended talks concerning the sale of Rolls Royce, BMW officially bought the rights to the Rolls Royce name and logo from Volkswagen, with the transition expected to take place in 2003. 1994 brought about another purchase, as BMW acquired the Rover Group PLC. After heavy losses, the company was finally sold in 2000, with Rover being split up from Land Rover which was purchased by Ford. BMW held the rights to the new Mini and the hot-hatch goes on sale in early 2002.

Today, the Z3, Z8 and all of the 3, 5, 7 and Motorsport series models continue the BMW tradition of building excellent automobiles with a special emphasis on performance, style and technological advancements. 1992 was another year-to-be-remembered for BMW when it, for the first time, outsold Mercedes in Europe. Hopefully in the future the rivalry between these and other makes will persist and companies such as BMW will continue to build great cars.


Now let’s go back to the past, to Austria in 1955 and look for information about the International Treaty.


Life was changing…

…at that time.


Fifty years have elapsed since the end of National Socialism and the Second World War. In 1945, Austria was liberated and occupied by Allied troops - Americans, Englishmen, Frenchmen and Soviets. A round-numbered anniversary such as this motivates us to reflect upon these historic events, and provides both a tangible and impelling opportunity to once again bring together those who first confronted each other in 1945 as "liberators and liberated," "victors and vanquished," "occupiers and the occupied."


On May 15, 1955, the foreign ministers of Austria, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. signed a State Treaty which restored the Austrian Federal Republic as an independent and sovereign state. Austria had been merged with Germany by Hitler who occupied the country in...


The Occupied Austria, 1945-1955

In 1945, Austria was treated as a defeated nation, like Germany partitioned into 4 zones of occupation, as was the capital city of Vienna (which coincidentally, as in the case of Berlin, was completely surrounded by the Soviet zone of occupation). Austria had been regarded as the first victim of Nazi aggression, but Austrians had contributed to the Nazi atrocities; Austrians such as ERNST KALTENBRUNNER and ARTHUR SEYSS-INQUART were among the defendants in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. In theory, Austria was to be jointly administrated by the 4 Allied powers; relations between the Soviets and the western allies soon turned sour. It was only in 1955 that a STAATSVERTRAG was negotiated, according to which the Allies withdrew from Austria, granting independence, under the (Soviet) condition of political neutrality.


Despite the partition in 4 zones of occupation, Austria was treated as one political unit (a state to be); a democratic constitution (1945) laid the foundation for the reemergence of political parties etc. Austrians were given the right to administrate their own affairs, as long as they got approval from the Allies (i.e. the approval from every one of the 4 Allies) for their measures. Under the circumstances - there was a considerable refugee problem, the economy had to be set on a peacetime footing again, many men had fallen in the war or were still P.O.W.s, others were suddenly returning - political infights took second stage and a GRAND COALITION was formed to asministrate political affairs, consisting of two large parties - the ÖVP (Peoples Party), the SPOe (social democrats) and one smaller party, the communists. The independents (liberals) would form an opposition. The constitution of 1920 (with 1929 amendments) was readopted. In 1946-1947 a policy of DENAZIFICATION was pursued to eliminate ex-Nazis from administration and the economy. From 1948 onward, Austria benefitted from MARSHALL AID, which was very instrumental in overcoming the severe economic crisis. After difficult negotiations, in 1955 Austria was released into independence; the STAATSVERTRAG contained the condition that Austria had to pursue a policy of neutrality.


Eros Ramazzotti:

Born on 28th October 1963 at Cinecittà, Rome, “where it is easier to dream than face reality”, Eros spent much of his boyhood working as an extra in the movies and dreaming about a fantastic career as a singer, encouraged by his father Rodolfo, a housepainter who had also recorded some songs. When he had finished secondary school, Eros tried to get into the Conservatory but failed the entrance exam, and chose to study accountancy. But all he could think about was music, and he dropped out after two years.


Eros Luciano Walter Ramazzotti Molina (later Eros Ramazotti) was bornon 28th, October, 1963, in Rome's San Giovanni Hospital, Italy. The son of Rodolfo Ramazzotti y Raffaella Molina,was raised in the Cinecittà neighborhood. Since his teens showed a natural passion for music, Eros tried to be admitted in the Music Conservatory, but he failed the previous evaluation.


In 1982 his first 45 rpm single, 'Ad un Amico', was introduced. In 1984, Eros participated for the first time in the San Remo Festival and won that contest with his song 'Terra Promessa'. In 1985 he participated once again and placed sixth. The following year, a third participation in the same event gave Eros the victory in the principal category with 'Adesso Tu'. Then, his second album 'Nuovi Eroi' was launched. In 1987, the third one came as 'In Certi Momenti', which raised him to the top in Europe. 'Musica È', his fourth album came in 1988. Two years later 'In Ogni Senso' with its song 'Cantico' was launched. Eros would made a tour almost all over the world.


In 1993, his new album 'Tutte Storie' was introduced. Eros quit from DDD records and founded his own record company, 'Radiorama'. On May 1996 he launched his first production 'Dove C'è Musica', completely from his inspiration. Some month later, his wife, Swiss model Michelle Hunziker, gave birth to their daughter in Lugano, Suiza.


Other 3 works would become to markets: Eros, Eros Live (both in 1998) and Stile Libero (2000). Eros Ramazzotti' success not only in Italian audiences, but in Spanish ones, too. Proof of that is his Spanish versions of 'Tutte Storie', 'Dove C'è Musica', 'Eros and 'Stile Libero'; besides his appereances and recordings with American singers such as Tina Turner and Cher.


As a Latin-pop singer, Eros Ramazzotti became especially popular in Germany, Mexico and Argentina (as well as in Italy) during the '90s, and he has sold over 20 million records worldwide, though his success in America has been limited.


Italian singer and actress Anna Oxa, aka "la Voce e il Cuore" (the Voice and the Heart), debuted with a song called "Fiorellin del Prato" at the age of 15. Two years later, the promising singer came in second place after participating in the prestigious San Remo's Festival with "Una Emozione da Poco." In the local film industry, Anna Oxa had the opportunity to play a main role for the first time in the movie Machio, Femina, Fiore, Frutto directed by Ruggero Miti.


After issuing her debut album, called Oxanna, the young Italian pop artist recorded Anna Oxa, including a successful version of Patti Smith's "Because the Night." In 1982, Anna Oxa left RCA and signed up with CBS before releasing her breakthrough album, Per Sognare, Per Cantare, Per Ballare, featuring the hit single "Senza di Me" (What About Me). ~ Drago Bonacich, All Music Guide