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Restriction Enzymes and DNA Fingerprinting. Molecular Scissors for Cutting DNA Precisely. Its because of these biological catalysts that genetic engineering is possible Restriction enzymes can also be called Endonucleases . Types of Restriction Enzymes. Type I

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Presentation Transcript
molecular scissors for cutting dna precisely
Molecular Scissors for Cutting DNA Precisely
  • Its because of these biological catalysts that genetic engineering is possible
  • Restriction enzymes can also be called Endonucleases
types of restriction enzymes
Types of Restriction Enzymes
  • Type I
    • Binds to the recognition site and then cut randomly somewhere along the length of the molecule
  • Type II
    • Binds to the recognition site and then cleaves the molecule by clipping the DNA backbones particular DNA molecule with a particular restriction enzyme will always produce the same set of DNA fragment
  • Type III and Type IV
types of cuts
Types of Cuts
  • Blunt end Cutters
  • Sticky-end Over-hangers
slide5
Uses
  • Restriction enzymes can be used in processes such as…
  • Southern Blotting
  • Cloning Verification
  • And Forensic DNA Fingerprinting
southern blotting
Southern Blotting
  • 1st step of Southern Blotting is digestion of DNA where the restriction enzymes come in
  • Hind III was the restriction enzyme used to cut up the DNA
  • Hind III comes from Haemophilus influenzae Rd
forensic dna fingerprinting
Forensic DNA Fingerprinting
  • Was first described in 1985 by geneticist Alec Jeffreys who discovered
    • That some sections of DNA contain DNA sequences that were repeated over and over again
    • The number of repeated sequences vary from individual to individual
  • Dr. Jeffreys also created the technique known as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to examine the length variation of these DNA repeat sequences
vntrs and strs
VNTRs and STRs
  • VNTRs (variable number of tandem repeats) and STRs (short tandem repeats) are DNA repeating sequences
  • VNTRs are also known as minisatellites which range from 10-100 bases in length
  • STRs are also known as microsatellites which range from 2-6 bases
strs and forensic fingerprinting
STRs and Forensic Fingerprinting
  • The small size of STRs are better suited for use in forensic applications where degraded DNA is common
  • In 1997 13 core STR loci were chosen to be the basis of CODIS (Combined DNA Index System)
    • CSF1PO, FGA,TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, AND D21S11
  • PE Applied Biosystems and Promega Corp. produce STR kits