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Pneumatic Components & Systems. Team 1640 Clem McKown – mentor November 2008. Topics. What are pneumatics? What are pneumatics good for? How pneumatics work The pneumatic system Variations on the theme. What are pneumatics.

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pneumatic components systems

Pneumatic Components & Systems

Team 1640

Clem McKown – mentor

November 2008

topics
Topics
  • What are pneumatics?
  • What are pneumatics good for?
  • How pneumatics work
  • The pneumatic system
  • Variations on the theme
what are pneumatics
What are pneumatics
  • Mechanisms which use air pressure to apply mechanical force and displacement (work)
  • The pneumatic devices we use are basically binary actuators – either retracted or extended

Retracted

Cylinder

Extended

Cylinder

what are pneumatics good for
What are pneumatics good for?
  • Mechanisms requiring (2) discrete states
    • Gear shifters
    • Gripper articulation
    • Lifters
    • Brakes
  • …and a significant force or displacement
strengths6
Strengths
  • Simple
strengths7
Strengths
  • Simple
  • Easy to control
strengths8
Strengths
  • Simple
  • Easy to control
  • Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package
strengths9
Strengths
  • Simple
  • Easy to control
  • Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package
  • Force is limited by air pressure and cylinder diameter
strengths10
Strengths
  • Simple
  • Easy to control
  • Can apply a lot of force from a small, light package
  • Force is limited by air pressure and cylinder diameter
  • No adverse consequence if cylinder is stopped (no stalled motors) or reversed – compressed air is a spring
drawbacks12
Drawbacks
  • A significant weight “investment” (~10 lbm) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device
drawbacks13
Drawbacks
  • A significant weight “investment” (~10 lbm) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device
  • Cylinders can be subject to damage
drawbacks14
Drawbacks
  • A significant weight “investment” (~10 lbm) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device
  • Cylinders can be subject to damage
  • Repair impossible
drawbacks15
Drawbacks
  • A significant weight “investment” (~10 lbm) in a pneumatic system is needed for the first pneumatic device
  • Cylinders can be subject to damage
  • Repair impossible
  • Not well suited for non-binary actuation
in industry
In Industry
  • Pneumatic actuators are extensively used by the Chemical Process Industry due to their intrinsic safety and their ability to fail safe (w/ spring return)

2-position

pneumatic

actuator

driving a

4-way

ball valve

pneumatically

driven flow

control valves

(butterfly type)

how it works
How it works

⅛” NPTF Air Port (Retraction)

  • Typically,
  • pressure
  • is applied
  • to one port
  • while the
  • other is
  • vented to
  • atmosphere
  • so DP is
  • regulated
  • gauge
  • pressure
  • (60 psi max)

Seals

Rod

Piston

Cylinder

Force = Area (in2) x D Pressure (lbf/in2)

Extension Area = Cylinder CS Area

Subtract Rod CS Area for Retraction

⅛” NPTF Air Port (Extension)

more works
More works
  • We may specify
    • Cylinder Diameter – sets Force @ a pressure
    • Stroke Length
    • Mounting Options
    • Rod Material
    • Rod Extensions
    • Spring Return
    • ….

Stroke

Length

the pneumatic system i the investment
The pneumatic system I(the investment)

Users

Pressure

Regulator

Pressure

Gauge

Pressure

Gauge

Pressure

Vent

Valve

High Pressure

Low Pressure

High-Pressure

Air Storage

High-Pressure

Air Storage

Pressure

Safety

Valve

Pressure

Switch

Motor

Controller

Spike

Compressor

the pneumatic system ii the solenoid valve

A

A

B

B

V

V

P

P

V

V

The pneumatic system II(the solenoid valve)

Supply/Vent Side

Output Side

All ports

⅛” NPTF

Port B

Vent A

State B

State A

Air Supply

(Pressure)

Port A

Vent B

the pneumatic system iii device control
The pneumatic system III(device control)

State A – Extends rod

State B – Retracts rod

¼” flexible tubing

Air

Pressure

A restrictor valve in Vent B

slows extension speed

without affecting retraction

speed

Controller

Spike

the pneumatic system iii device control23
The pneumatic system III(device control)

If you are using pairs of

cylinders which are activated

together, they can be driven

by common solenoids

State A – Extends rod

State B – Retracts rod

¼” flexible tubing

Air

Pressure

A restrictor valve in Vent B

slows extension speed

without affecting retraction

speed

Controller

Spike

plumbing tubing fittings
Plumbing – Tubing Fittings

Male Elbow - SMC KQL07-34S

Male Connector - SMC KQH07-34S

Tee - SMC KQT07-00

Restrictor Elbow - SMC NAS2201F-N01-07S

something outside the box

Something outside the box

In 2006

Team 386 created high vacuum

with cylinders

team 386 2006 a better vacuum
Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum

Team 386 used suction to lift ringers,

but was underwhelmed by the vacuum

developed by venturi

team 386 2006 a better vacuum27
Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum

Team 386 used suction to lift ringers,

but was underwhelmed by the vacuum

developed by venturi

Retracting the smaller cylinder

team 386 2006 a better vacuum28
Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum

Generates a high

vacuum on the

larger cylinder

Retracting the smaller cylinder

team 386 2006 a better vacuum29
Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum

Separate cylinder sets were used for

each suction cup, providing redundancy

Generates a high

vacuum on the

larger cylinder

Retracting the smaller cylinder

team 386 2006 a better vacuum30
Team 386 (2006) a better vacuum

Separate cylinder sets were used for

each suction cup, providing redundancy

Extending the small cylinders released

the vacuum and dropped the ringer

Breaks the vacuum

Extending the smaller cylinder