Chapter 4 • Interpersonal Communication
The Communication Process Noise Noise ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT Sender Receiver Channel Message Feedback
Relationship Building • Communication is a vehicle for building relationships • Sorenson, DeBord, and Ramirez say we establish relationships along two primary dimensions • Dominate-subordinate (control) • Cold-warm
Communication Dimensions of Establishing a Relationship Dominant Personal Impersonal Warm Cold Accepting Supportive Subordinate
Nonverbal Communication • The transmission of messages through means other than words • Nonverbal messages sometimes • Accompany verbal messages • Stand alone
Modes of Transmission • Environment – setting; furniture • Interpersonal Distance
Modes of Transmission • Posture • Hand Gestures • Facial Expressions and Eye Contact • Voice Quality • Personal Appearance • Attention Paid to the Other Person
Improve Nonverbal Communication • Get some feedback on your body language • Learn to relax when communicating • Use gestures, but don’t overdo it • Avoid using the same gesture indiscriminately • Practice role-playing • Use mirroring to establish rapport
Mirroring • Subtly imitating someone • Imitate breathing pattern • Adopt voice speed • Imitate gestures • Adopt style of dress
Communication Barriers • Barriers occur when message is • Complex • Emotionally arousing • Conflicting with receiver’s mental set
Overcoming Communication Problems • Understand the receiver • Develop empathy • Recognize what motivates the receiver • Understand the other persons frame of reference
Overcoming Communication Problems • Minimize defensive communication • Blaming • Denial
Overcoming Communication Problems • Use multiple channels • In-person • E-mail • Phone call • Letter
Overcoming Communication Problems • Get and give both verbal and nonverbal feedback • Ask for feedback so a dialogue takes place; it builds trust • Give feedback to provide reinforcement to the sender
Overcoming Communication Problems • Display a positive attitude • You will appear more credible and trustworthy
Overcoming Communication Problems • Use persuasive communication • Ten suggestions in your book on pages 75-77.
Overcoming Communication Problems • Listen actively • Empathize • Summarize • Use supportive body language • See figure 4-5 on page 78.
Listening Traps • Do Self-Assessment Quiz 4-2 on p. 79
Prepare for Stressful Conversations • Rehearse how you will share bad news • Practice temperate phrasing (tact) • Be clear about what you mean • Example: We can’t use your product because it lacks three features that we need.
Overcoming Communication Problems • Metacommunicate! • Communicate about your communication
Overcoming Communication Problems • Recognize gender differences in communication style
Gender Differences • Women use conversation to build rapport • Men prefer to talk to preserve independence by showing knowledge and skill • Women want empathy, not solutions • Men prefer to work out problems alone, while women like to talk out solutions with another person • Women are more likely to compliment a coworker • Men are more likely to criticize a coworker
Gender Differences • Men tend to be more directive and women more polite • Women tend to give in to maintain a relationship • Men are more interested than women in calling attention to their accomplishments • Men tend to dominate discussions during meetings
A Challenge for You • Be more aware of how you communicate at work • Watch others and see if you can discern some patterns • Men-try being more empathetic • Women-try being more direct