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HYPOTHALAMUS. Hypothalamus Functions. Controls/integrates ANS. Raises arterial blood pressure and increases heart rate (posterior). Lowers arterial blood pressure and decreases heart rate (anterior). Hypothalamus Functions. Reception and integration of visceral sensory impulses.

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hypothalamus functions
Hypothalamus Functions
  • Controls/integrates ANS.
  • Raises arterial blood pressure and increases heart rate (posterior).
  • Lowers arterial blood pressure and decreases heart rate (anterior).
hypothalamus functions3
Hypothalamus Functions
  • Reception and integration of visceral sensory impulses.
  • Intermediary between nervous and endocrine systems.
hypothalamus functions4
Hypothalamus Functions
  • Produces ADH and oxytocin.
  • Involved in psychosomatic disorders.
  • Associated with rage and aggression.
  • Controls normal body temperature.
hypothalamus functions5
Hypothalamus Functions
  • Regulates food intake.
  • Maintains extracellular fluid volume.
  • Biorhythm oscillator.
  • Sexual center.
hypothalamic nuclei
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Mammillary bodies:

Involved in olfactory reflexes and emotional responses to odors.

Relay stations for olfactory neurons to inferior colliculi.

hypothalamic nuclei7
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Supraoptic nuclei :

Send projections (axons) that release neurohormones into capillaries in the posterior pituitary:

Oxytocin

Vasopressin

hypothalamic nuclei8
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Suprachiasmatic nuclei:

Located immediately above optic chiasma.

Acts as a master biologic clock, controlling circadian and circannual rhythms.

Set to light-dark cycle by a direct retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

  • Anterior nuclei:

Caudal continuation of the medial preoptic area.

hypothalamic nuclei9
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Paraventricular Medial Division:

Projects to the median eminence.

Secretes releasing or inhibiting hormones into hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system:

Corticotropin releasing factor.

Thyroxin releasing factor.

Somatostatin.

Dopamine.

hypothalamic nuclei10
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Paraventricular Intermediate magnocellular division:

Sends projections to the posterior pituitary that release oxtocin and vasopressin

  • Paraventricular lateral division:

Receives large number of inputs from brainstem nuclei, other hypothalamic nuclei, limbic system, etc. and projects to a number of sympathetic structures.

hypothalamic nuclei11
Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Medial preoptic area

Much larger in males than in females

Contains cells that release gonadotropin- releasing factors to the median eminence into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.

Involved in temperature regulation

hypothalamus12
HYPOTHALAMUS
  • Tuberal level:

Previously considered to be a feeding center and a pleasure center.

Lesions here reduce eating behaviors.