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British Colonial America 1600 - 1776. Chapter 5 – 17 th century Chapter 6 – 18 th century. England – The Great Migration. Slow beginning (little activity prior to 1600) Cabots: Find Northwest Passage Martin Frobisher – 3 voyages in 1570s Elizabethan Sea Dogs (1558 – 1603).

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british colonial america 1600 1776

British Colonial America1600 - 1776

Chapter 5 – 17th century

Chapter 6 – 18th century

england the great migration
England – The Great Migration
  • Slow beginning (little activity prior to 1600)
    • Cabots: Find Northwest Passage
    • Martin Frobisher – 3 voyages in 1570s
    • Elizabethan Sea Dogs (1558 – 1603)
england the great migration1
England – The Great Migration
  • Slow beginning (little activity prior to 1600)
    • Cabots: Find Northwest Passage
    • Martin Frobisher – 3 voyages in 1570s
    • Elizabethan Sea Dogs (1558 – 1603)
  • Yet, by 1650 – 50,000 english migrants
    • Caribbean
    • Chesapeake Bay (Jamestown)
    • New England
  • Why?
reasons for migration
Reasons for migration:
  • England is overpopulated
  • Expand to new markets – e.g., wool
  • Precious metals – gold!!
  • New source of olive oil, wine, etc??
  • Route to the Indies
  • Protestant Zeal
    • These were motives all the way; thru 1770s
english colonial system
English Colonial System
  • French/Spanish – centralized; governed from New World capitals
  • England – 13 separate colonies
    • Great differences
    • Many disputes – e.g., boundaries
chapter 5 colonial origins of anglo america europeanization 1700 250 000 population
Chapter 5 – Colonial Origins of Anglo America: Europeanization(1700 – 250,000 population)

Chapter 6 – Colonial America in 18th Century: Americanization

(1776 – 2,500,000 population)

epicenters
Epicenters

Plymouth Rock

colonial organization 1606
Colonial Organization (1606)
  • Royal Charter – by King James
  • Council – politicians and merchants who would recruit and define governmental structure
  • Two bodies given the charge
    • Virginia Company of Plymouth (41 – 45 degrees)
    • Virginia Company of London (34 – 38 degrees)
    • Latitude between – either one
conditions of the charters
Conditions of the Charters
  • Inland for 100 miles
  • All rights of trade with natives
  • Exploitation of precious metals (1/5 to crown)
  • Consideration to the Natives
    • Offered true religion
    • Offered peaceful governance
    • All their lands passed to the two companies
  • (Note: ignored claims of France and Spain)
jamestown early history london group
Jamestown - early history(London Group)
  • Bad site – low and swampy
  • Death and misery
  • Trading post
    • Male population
    • Working for the company
  • 1616-1624: change to permanent colony
    • Profitable product
    • System of landholding
factor 1 king tobacco
Factor #1 - King Tobacco
  • Indigenous to new world
  • Indies better variety –John Rolfe
  • Ubiquitous!
  • Ugh!
    • One-crop economy
    • Dependent on England for supplies
    • Soil depletion
    • Labor intensive
not everybody liked it
Not everybody liked it!!
  • "Smoking is a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black, stinking fume thereof nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless." -- James I of England, "A Counterblaste to Tobacco."
factor 2 private property
Factor # 2 – Private Property

Headright system

50 acres/head

Capt. Adam Throughgood – this guy accumulated 1105 headrights over 20 years!!

Result Plantation economy – large and dispersed; NOT towns

1650 – Jamestown had 30 houses

  • Today
factor 3 sex
Factor #3 – Sex!
  • 1620 – very few women; active program to “import” unmarried women
  • Etc.
  • Etc.
  • Etc.
  • Etc.
  • Etc.
plantation economy
Plantation Economy
  • Rivers as far as navigable – fall line
  • Landings for ocean-going vessels
  • All planters had direct line to England
  • In Between – forest primeval and the “hill country”
jamestown population
Jamestown Population
  • Mixed population – reflected classes of English society
  • 30% - rural middle class; paid their own way
  • Majority – poor tenants, laborers, and un-employed artisans: Redundant Population
slavery
Slavery
  • Tobacco culture – labor intensive and large land-holding
  • Indentured labor unreliable, lacked permanence, also thirsted for their own land; flow from England reduced
  • Virginia and Maryland population growth in 1660-1700 (35,000 to 88,000)
  • African Slaves
  • 1670-1700: 12,000 slaves to Chesapeake
1700 your text
1700 – your text
  • By the end of the century (1700) there was distinct evidence of regional homogeneity within the Chesapeake. The commitment to a tobacco plantation and slave system, with its consequent class structure, was widespread. Life was overwhelmingly rural, agrarian, dispersed, and decentralized.