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US Counterterrorism Strategy. National Strategy for Homeland Security July 2002 National Security Strategy of the US , September 2002 National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction December 2002 National Strategy for Combating Terrorism February 2003

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us counterterrorism strategy
US Counterterrorism Strategy
  • National Strategy for Homeland SecurityJuly 2002
  • National Security Strategy of the US, September 2002
  • National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass DestructionDecember 2002
  • National Strategy for Combating TerrorismFebruary 2003
  • National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key AssetsFebruary 2003
  • “National Security Strategy of the US,”March 2006
  • Declassified Key Judgments of the National Intelligence Estimate “Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States,”April 2006
  • “National Strategy for Combating Terrorism,”September 2006
  • US National Security Strategy, May 2010
  • National Strategy for Counterterrorism, June 2011
uk contest march 2009
UK: CONTEST, March 2009

4Ps

  • Pursue
  • Prevent
  • Protect
  • Prepare
but what is counterterrorism
But what is counterterrorism?
  • Organization
  • Intelligence
  • Diplomacy
  • Economic and Financial Measures
  • Law Enforcement
  • Operations
  • Use of Force
  • Negotiations
  • War of Ideas
tradition
Tradition

CIA

FBI

commissions
Commissions
  • US Commission on National Security in the 21st Century (USCNS) Hart-Rudman Commission (see Phase 1 Report, p. 7)
  • Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (Gilmore Commission)
slide8
Probability

vs.

Consequence

clinton counterterrorism
Clinton Counterterrorism
  • PDD-39
  • PDD-62
  • PDD-63For more, see PDD-63 addendums here
post 9 11 ct organization
Post-9/11 CT Organization

Executive Office of the President

  • Office of Homeland Security (OHS; 2001-2009)
  • Homeland Security Council (HSC)
homeland security council system 2001 2009
Homeland Security Council System (2001-2009)

Homeland Security Council (HSC)

Statutory Members: President, Vice President, Secretaries of Homeland

Security, Defense, and Attorney General.

Bush Admin. Roster also included: Secretaries of Treasury, Health and

Human Services, Transportation, White House Chief of Staff, Directors of

Office of Management and Budget, Central Intelligence, FBI, FEMA,

Chief of Staff to the VP. Chaired by Homeland Security Adviser.

National Security Adviser may attend all meetings.

Bush Invitees depending on the issue: Secretaries of State, Interior,

Agriculture, Commerce, Labor,

Energy, Veterans Affairs, EPA Administrator, Deputy National

Security Adviser for Combating Terrorism, Counsel to the President

Policy Coordinating Committees (PCCs). These are interagency committees composed of Under and Assistant Secretary level officials from member and invitee departments/ agencies of HSC, chaired by Senior Directors of Office of Homeland Security Directorates

Office of Homeland

Security (OHS).

Managed by Homeland

Security Adviser;

Professional Staff of 100.

Directorates for: Protection

and Prevention; Research

and Development;

Response and Recovery;

Communications;

Intelligence and Detection;

Policy and Plans.

HSC Principals Committee (HSC/PC)

All Members and Invitees of HSC meeting without the President

and Vice President. Chaired by Homeland Security Adviser.

Domestic Threat

Response and

Incident

Management PCC

Medical and

Public Health

Preparedness

PCC

Public

Affairs

PCC

Key Asset,

Border, Territorial

Waters, and

Airspace Security

PCC

HSC Deputies Committees (HSC/DC)

Deputies to HSC/PC Members/Invitees. Chaired by Deputy

Homeland Security Adviser

WMD

PCC

Economic

Consequences

PCC

Detection,

Surveillance,

Intelligence PCC

Plans, Training,

Evaluation,

Exercises PCC

Research and

Development

PCC

Domestic

Transportation

Security PCC

Law Enforcement,

And Investigations

PCC

homeland security council system 2009
Homeland Security Council System (2009)

Homeland Security Council (HSC)

Statutory Members: President, Vice President, Secretaries of

Homeland Security, Defense, and Attorney General.

Others Invited depending on the issue: Secretaries of Treasury, Health and

Human Services, Transportation, the Director of the FBI, Director of National

Intelligence, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Assistant

to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism (APHS/CT),

the Chief of Staff, Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Assistant to the

President for National Security Affairs, and the Counsel to the President.

NSC

Interdepartmental Working Groups are interagency committees composed of Under and Assistant Secretary level officials from member and invitee departments/ agencies of HSC

HSC Principals Committee (HSC/PC)

All Members and Invitees of HSC meeting without the President

and Vice President. Chaired by Homeland Security Adviser.

National

Security

Staff

(Formerly

NSC Staff)

HSC Deputies Committees (HSC/DC)

Deputies to HSC/PC Members/Invitees. Chaired by Deputy

Homeland Security Adviser

HSC Interdepartmental

Working Groups

2002 new cabinet dept
2002 New Cabinet Dept.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

  • DHS Organizational Chart
  • Organizational charts for DHS Bureaus
slide14
2. Intelligence
  • Defining the Problem
    • Who are the threats?
  • Sharing Information
state dept
State Dept.
  • From US State Dept. Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
  • Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)
    • The current list
  • State Sponsors of Terrorism
  • Country Reports on Terrorism
  • Terrorist Exclusion List
  • Exec. Order 13224
terrorist watch lists
Terrorist Watch Lists
  • HSPD-6
  • FBI Counterterrorism Division of National Security Branch
  • Terrorist Screening Center
    • Terrorist Screening Data Base
      • Selectee List
      • No Fly List
fbi reorganization
FBI Reorganization
  • FBI National Security Branch (NSB)
    • Organization
  • Counterterrorism Division
  • Counterintelligence Division
  • Directorate of Intelligence
  • WMD Directorate
  • Terrorist Screening Center
information sharing
Information Sharing?
  • Lack of Coordination
  • Priorities?

CIA

FBI

fixing the intel problem
Fixing the Intel Problem
  • Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act 2004
  • Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
  • National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
intelligence fusion centers
Intelligence Fusion Centers
  • Linking federal, state, and local efforts
  • Fusion Centers and Intel Sharing
  • DHS/DOJ Fusion Center Guidelines
us executive branch
US Executive Branch
  • Department of State:
    • Office of the Coordinator for CT
  • Dept. of Justice
    • National Security Division
    • FBI
      • National Security Branch
      • Counterterrorism division
  • Department of Treasury: Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence
    • Office of Foreign Asset Control
  • Department. of Defense
    • Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
    • Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
    • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas’ Security Affairs
  • Department of Health and Human Services:
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    • Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
  • Office of the Director of National Intelligence:
    • National Counterintelligence Center
  • Central Intelligence Agency:
    • Office of Terrorism Analysis/DCI Counterterrorism Center
  • Office of Homeland Security
  • National Security Council
  • AND Department of Homeland Security
us congress
US Congress
  • U. S. House of Representatives
    • House Armed Services Committee,
    • House Committee on Foreign Affairs
      • Subcommittee on International Terrorism and Non-proliferation
    • House Select Committee on Homeland Security
    • House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
  • U. S. Senate
    • Senate Committee on Armed Services
    • Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
    • Senate Committee on Intelligence
    • Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
slide24
UK
  • Home Office
    • Office for Security and Counterterrorism
    • UK CT Strategy
    • March 2009 Strategy Document
  • MI5
    • Organization
    • Joint Terrorism Analysis Center
  • Metropolitan Police Service
japan
Japan
  • MOJ
    • Public Security Intelligence Agency
  • Japanese National Police Agency
germany
Germany
  • Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution
  • Federal Ministry of the Interior
    • Terrorism News
    • Federal Criminal Police Office
israel
Israel
  • Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Institute for Special Operations (Mossad)
  • Israeli Security Agency (Shabak or Shin Bet)
  • PM’s National Security Council
    • Counter Terrorism Bureau
slide28
3. Diplomacy

UN-Based Agreements

slide30
4. Economic and Financial Measures

International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism

slide31
US Treasury: Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence
    • Organizational Chart
    • Office of Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes
    • Office of Foreign Assets Control
      • Specially Designated Nationals List
  • Exec. Order 13224
    • The list
pre 2001 terrorists as criminals
Pre-2001 Terrorists as Criminals
  • 1996 Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act
    • Summary by US Congress, Congressional Research Service
slide34
Ramzi Yousef Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman (leader of Islamic Group)

Convicted (1997/1998) for Convicted (1995) for bombing of WTC 1993 plot on NY Landmarks

Life sentence Life Sentence

United States v. Mohammed

Salameh et al U.S. Court of Appeals –

2nd Circuit Aug 4, 1998

post 2001 what are terrorists
Post-2001: What are Terrorists?

Uncertainty

Question: What are terrorists who are not affiliated with a nation-state?

  • Criminals
  • Soldiers
  • Neither
  • Both
  • Don’t ask
three key issues
Three Key Issues
  • Surveillance
  • Legal Status of Individuals
  • Treatment of Individuals
1 surveillance
1. Surveillance
  • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) 1978
  • USA PATRIOT ACT 10/26/01
    • Pro and Con
    • ACLU on the Act
  • Terrorist Surveillance Program (2001)
  • Protect America Act 2007
2 legal status of individuals
2. Legal Status of Individuals
  • Detainees (unlawful enemy combatants)
    • President George W. Bush Military Order, November 13, 2001, “Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism”
    • Authorization to Use Military Force, September 18, 2001
the legal evolution legislation and trials
The Legal Evolution: Legislation and Trials
  • Detainee Treatment Act, 2005
  • Military Commissions Act, 2006
  • Military Commission Act 2009(amendments to 2006 Act)
    • Analysis by CRS
    • Manual for Military Commissions )2010 edition)
  • Guantanamo Trials
  • Guantanamo Docket
the legal evolution key legal cases
The Legal Evolution: Key Legal Cases
  • Rasul v. Bush
  • Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
  • Padilla v. Rumsfeld
  • Hamdan v. Rumsfeld
  • Boumediene v. Bush
3 treatment of individuals
3. Treatment of Individuals
  • Memos from the Office of Legal Counsel, Bush and Obama Administrations concerning detainee treatment and interrogation policies Detainee Treatment Act, 2005
  • Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings on Detainee Treatment, May 2009
slide42
Interrogation of al Qaeda Operative, Memorandum for John Rizzo, Acting General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency, from Jay Bybee, Assistant Attorney General, August 1, 2002, from http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/doj/olc/zubaydah.pdf
slide43
6. Operations
  • CIA
  • DoD
  • NEST
  • JTTF (FBI)
slide44
JTTF

NJTTF

(38 agencies)

JTTFs

OIG Report

State and Local Law

Enforcement

(MOUs)

dilemmas of ct for jttf and local law enforcement 1
Dilemmas of CT for JTTF and Local Law Enforcement (1)
  • Intelligence
    • Identify
    • Track
  • Decision:
    • to share with other domestic institutions
    • To share with foreign institutions
dilemmas of ct 2
Dilemmas of CT (2)

Decision: Considerations

  • Goal: Prevention or Prosecution?
  • When do you have enough evidence to arrest and charge?
  • Is this a small/single who will lead you to bigger target or group of targets?
  • Are you allowed to detain someone without charge as a preventive measure?
    • Would that make it difficult to then charge them later or become a controversy that hurts support for policy?
  • How close is the person or group to an actual attack?
israel and the plo
Israel and the PLO
  • Oslo Accords 1993
  • Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasr Arafat at the White House 1993
uk and ira
UK and IRA
  • Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement (1998)

British prime minister Tony Blair and taoiseach Bertie Ahern signing the Belfast Agreement in April, 1998

rejection of accords by real ira
Rejection of Accords by Real IRA

15 August 1998, car bomb by Real IRA, Omagh, County Tyrone, 29 dead; from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7153607.stm

9 war of ideas
9. War of Ideas
  • Radicals vs. Moderates
  • Failed States
  • Ethno-nationalists
  • Al-Qaeda
2 failed states
2. Failed States

Al-Shabab in Somalia

3 ethno nationalism
3.Ethno-nationalism

PKK in Turkey

4 radical ideologies
4. Radical Ideologies
  • Freedom House, 2009
successful counterterrorism
Successful Counterterrorism?

Since 9/11: 39 Attempted Terrorism Strikes

Heritage Foundation Analysis (May 2011)

Heritage Foundation Chart (May 2011)

Vs.

Three Attacks with loss of life

  • July 2002, Los Angeles
  • June 2009, Little Rock, Arkansas
  • Ft. Hood 11/5/2009