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The Cuban Missile Crisis. The United States and Latin America. 1823 Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming involved in Latin America – after the collapse of the Spanish Empire. Soviet Global Policy.

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Presentation Transcript
the united states and latin america
The United States and Latin America
  • 1823 Monroe Doctrine
  • Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming involved in Latin America – after the collapse of the Spanish Empire
soviet global policy
Soviet Global Policy

Soviet foreign policy changes with the death of Stalin & the Soviet Union becomes interested in the Third World – backing national liberation movements

Cuba perfect example - “We did not know what type of revolution had taken place”

cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • January 1959 victory of the Cuba Revolution
  • As Cuban-US relations deteriorate Havana’s relationship with Moscow improves
  • Cuba perfect example of what Moscow hoped to achieve in the Third World
cuban missile crisis5
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Propaganda gold dust – Cold War at its height & due to shared history/geography with US
cuban missile crisis6
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • April 1961 - Bay of Pigs
  • Dec 1961 – Castro proclaims himself Marxist-Leninist
deployment
Deployment
  • Summer 1962 missiles begin to be sent to Cuba
  • Politburo divided
  • Wanted to announce to world as fait accompli when at UN
13 days in october
13 Days in October
  • 14th – photographs of missiles on Cuba
  • 22nd – Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba
  • 24th – Soviet ships turn back
  • 24th – message from Khrushchev saying must find peaceful solution
  • 25th – U2 spy plane shot down
  • 26th – 2nd message from Khrushchev
  • 28th – agreement reached
excomm reasons
ExComm Reasons
  • Bargaining chip for Jupiters in Turkey
  • Diverting trap – real goal was Berlin
  • Rebalance Cold War
  • Close Nuclear imbalance – cost
  • Cuban defence
excomm options
Excomm Options

3 possible options:

  • Attack Cuba
  • Trade missiles for those in Turkey
  • Quarantine

Much pressure on JFK from hawks after Bay of Pigs

11 voted for quarantine/6 for invasion

soviet aims
Soviet Aims

Idea came to Khrushchev while going for a walk in Bulgaria!

  • Nuclear parity – been proven by 1961
  • Weapons in Turkey – 10 mins to hit Soviet Union but 20 mins to hit US
  • Virgin Land campaign – poor results
soviet aims12
Soviet Aims

(4) Reduce military spending – more “bang

for your buck” on “rumble for your

rouble”

(5) Tension with China

(6) Problems with the West – U2 & Vienna/Berlin

soviet aims13
Soviet Aims

(7) Believe JFK weak

(8) Khrushchev’s character

(9) Cuban defence - another Bay of Pigs but 40,000 Soviet troops already on Cuba

solutions
Solutions
  • What other options open to JFK & Khrushchev? – pressures from within own governments
  • Both fought in World War 2
analysis
Analysis

Nye – 3 ideas

  • Domestic level
  • International level – distribution of power
  • Military technology – relative standing in international system
analysis16
Analysis
  • Graham Allison – Essence of Decision. Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Model I – security and stability
  • Model II – Organisations within

governments have own reasons

  • Model III – Individuals with own reasons but

careful consideration of political

situation in own country

outcomes
Outcomes
  • Perceived as great humiliation for Soviet Union
outcomes18
Outcomes
  • “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first” – Dean Rusk, US Secretary of State
  • Hotline between Washington and Moscow created
  • 1963 - Limited test Ban Treaty
  • 1968 – Non Proliferation Treaty
outcomes19
Outcomes
  • US promise not to invade Cuba – Monroe Doctrine dead
  • 1963 Jupiter missiles in Turkey
  • 1964 cost Khrushchev his job – overseas adventures
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Moscow takes decision to station nuclear weapons for a variety of different internal and foreign policy reasons – not just Cuban defence
  • “special” relationship between Washington & Havana increases tension
  • Nye - analysis
  • Allison – Essence of Decision
conclusions21
Conclusions
  • Perceived as humiliation for Moscow – cost Khrushchev his job
  • Legacy for rest of Cold War
  • “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first.”