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Multimedia Security Part I: Digital Watermarking. Subrata Acharya CS 2310, Spring 2007. Digital Watermarking?. Allows users to embed some data into digital contents

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multimedia security part i digital watermarking

Multimedia SecurityPart I: Digital Watermarking

Subrata Acharya

CS 2310, Spring 2007

digital watermarking
Digital Watermarking?
  • Allows users to embed some data into digital contents
  • When data is embedded, it is not written at header part but embedded directly into digital media itself by changing media contents data
types of watermark
Types of Watermark
  • Visible
    • A visible translucent image which is overlaid on the primary image
  • Invisible
    • An overlaid image which cannot be seen, but which can be detected algorithmically
visible watermark
Visible Watermark
  • Logo or seal of the organization which holds the rights to the primary image, it allows the primary image to be viewed, but still marks it clearly as the property of the owning organization.
  • Overlay the watermark in a way which makes it difficult to remove, if the goal of indicating property rights is to be achieved.
invisible watermark
Invisible Watermark
  • Embedding level is too small to notice
  • Can be retrieved by extraction software
  • Applications:
    • Authentication
    • Copyrighting
    • Etc…
embedding techniques
Embedding Techniques
  • Spatial domain
    • Original needed
    • Original not needed
  • Frequency domain
    • Original needed
    • Original not needed
  • Spread domain
frequency domain
Frequency Domain
  • Watermarking signal to embed
  • Host signal
  • Frequency components
  • Embedding
  • Extraction
applications of watermarking
Applications of Watermarking
  • Rights management
  • Contents management
  • Access/copy control
  • Authentication
features of watermarking
Features of Watermarking
  • Invisible/Inaudible
    • Information is embedded without digital content degradation, because of the level of embedding operation is too small for human to notice the change.
  • Inseparable
    • The embedded information can survive after some processing, compression and format transformation.
  • Unchanging data file size
    • Data size of the media is not changed before and after embedding operation because information is embedded directly into the media.
technical requirements for watermarking
Technical Requirements for Watermarking

Invisibility

Robustness

Capacity

digital watermarking alliance
Digital Watermarking Alliance

Represents applications and solutions for:

  • Audio and Music Content
  • Video, Movies and TV Content
  • Digital Imagery
  • Identity Documents
  • Value Documents
digital watermarking examples
Digital Watermarking Examples
  • Copyright Communication
    • Copy Protection
    • Monitoring
    • Filtering/Classification
    • Authentication/Integrity
  • Product Serialization & Tracking
    • Asset/Content Management
    • Rights Management
    • Remote Triggering
    • Linking/E-Commerce
potential usage models and benefits
Potential Usage Models and Benefits

User Software

Usage Models

Copyright CommunicationP2P systems only distribute non-copyright content

Detect Copyright DWM

Licensed ContentP2P systems can resell copyrighted content with license agreements with content owners

Detect Content ID

Enhanced ContentP2P systems provide or sell media content information and related items

copyright digital watermark architecture

Content Owner

User’s PC

Audio/Video MasterEmbed Copyrightand Content ID DWM

Rip SoftwareCompressed Audio/VideoFile (e.g. MP3 file)

User SoftwareDetect Copyright and Content ID DWM for Secure and Enhanced content

Rights & Info DatabaseContent ID linked to rights, information and related content

Provider Index Database Location(Centralized or Distributed)

Copyright Digital Watermark Architecture

Can be used to address P2P and social network content Identification needs as well as providing identification of orphan works and access to metadata/networked information

filtering classification
Filtering & Classification
  • Can support existing, established and/or new Classification Systems or content identifiers such as MPAA film ratings, ISAN or ad identification codes, etc.
  • Filtering can occur at the whole content level and/or at a more granular level identifying copyrighted, sensitive and/or questionable material for the given audience
  • May be key element of identifying copyrighted content to support legitimate P2P distribution

Access Legitimate Copy or License

Copyrighted

Non-Copyrighted

Content Filter

connected content linking

Captured CD e-logo links to web and music downloads

DOWNLOAD

  • Ring tones
  • Buy tickets
  • Reviews
  • Tour dates
  • Samples
  • Band info
Connected Content/Linking
  • Promoting & Facilitating M-Commerce
  • Location based services
  • Multimedia access
    • Streaming audio
    • Music
    • Multimedia
    • Bookmarking
digital media serialization tracking

Retail Content

Recordable Media

EmbedSerial # (2)

EmbedSerial # (1)

Content ID

Content Provider

Track and take proper action

DetectSerial Number

Digital Media Serialization & Tracking
  • Identifies content owners and rights while communicating copyright information
  • Awareness of watermarked content by consumer creates deterrent against unauthorized copying and distribution
  • Provides accurate identification of source of unauthorized content discovered on the Internet and/or physical media

(1) At Point of Distribution

(2) At point of copying/re-distribution

Protected for privacy

multimedia security part ii encryption

Multimedia SecurityPart II: Encryption

Subrata Acharya

CS 2310, Spring 2007

goals
Goals
  • Person authentication
    • Assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed
  • Access control
    • Prevention of unauthorized use of a resource
  • Data confidentiality
    • Protection of data from unauthorized disclosure
  • Data integrity
    • Assurance that data received is as sent
  • Non-repudiation
    • Protection against denial by the parties in a communication
multimedia data
Multimedia Data

What separates multimedia data from traditional alpha numeric data?

  • Large in file size
  • May require real-time processing (especially for continuous media)
  • Portable and mobile applications
multimedia encryption approach
Multimedia Encryption Approach
  • Signal scrambling
    • Historical approach
    • Not compatible with modern multimedia compression
    • Fast speed but low security
  • Total encryption with cryptographic ciphers
    • Trivial solution
    • High security but slow speed
  • Selective encryption
    • Most popular approach today
    • Limited in its range of application
  • Integrating encryption into entropy coding
    • Complementary to selective encryption
    • Very fast computation speed
selective encryption
Selective Encryption
  • Select the most important coefficients and then encrypt them with traditional ciphers such as DES
  • Advantages
    • Lower complexity
    • High security level provided by traditional cryptology
    • Less error correction coding redundancy
    • Compatible with existing software and hardware modules

Media

Compression

System

Coefficient

Selection

Cryptographic

Cipher

Coefficients

Digitized

Audiovisual

data

Selected

Coefficients

Error

Correction

Coding

Non-selected

Coefficients

Transmission channel or storage media

example selective encryption for g 723 1 speech coder

+

Example: Selective Encryption for G.723.1 Speech Coder
  • ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1
    • A popular low bit rate speech codec
  • Based on the human voice generation model
    • Vocoder
    • Decoder synthesizes speech using the model

LSP codebook indices

LSP

Decoder

LSP

Interpolator

Vocal Tract

Linear filter

Lag of pitchpredictors

Gain vectors

Pitch

Decoder

Pitch

Postfilter

Synthesis

Filter

Formant

Postfilter

Excitation

Decoder

Fixed codebook gains

and others

Gain Scaling

Unit

Vocal Cord

Excitation signal

generation

randomized huffman table encryption

00000000

10011010

Randomized Huffman Table Encryption

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

A

A

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

C

B

C

B

G

E

D

F

G

E

D

F

isomorphic tree!

Huffman code #0

Huffman code #1

100011001010110111101111

BADCAEFG

110011001110110110111111

multimedia encryption with randomized entropy coder

1110

KHS = 011000110 …

s

PRBG

Multimedia Encryption with Randomized Entropy Coder
  • Select a good PRBG
  • Select an r-bit random seed s (encryption key)
  • Pseudo-random sequence output from PRBG(s) becomes the key hoping sequence (KHS)

Entropy

Coder

Input symbol

1110

101

110001…

challenges
Challenges
  • Real time constraint
  • Potential cost constraint
  • Potential bit rate increase
  • Rate variation challenge
  • Dynamic network conditions
  • Transcoding challenge
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Multimedia security relevance
  • Tradeoff approach based on application
  • Goal is the design of an
    • efficient,
    • secure and
    • cost effective technique for multimedia security using digital watermarking and encryption