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Joining with other interested individuals in 1867, Oliver Kelley formed the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry Local affiliates were known as "granges" and the members as "grangers."

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GRANGE MOVEMENT


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grange movement

Joining with other interested individuals in 1867, Oliver Kelley formed the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry

  • Local affiliates were known as "granges" and the members as "grangers."
  • After the Panic of 1873, the Grange spread rapidly throughout the farms of the Midwest, since farmers in all areas were plagued by low prices for their products, growing indebtedness and discriminatory treatment by the railroads.
  • Very strong in Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, & Iowa (big farm states)

GRANGE MOVEMENT

http://www.state.mn.us/ebranch/mhs/places/sites/ohkf/articleok.html

grange movement cont

The Grange played an important role by demonstrating that farmers were capable of organizing and advocating a political agenda

  • Many of their ideas and plans were taken up by other political organizations, most notably the Populist Party of the 1890s
  • Lecturers went from town to town
  • Membership grew to 4 million
  • Most members in South and West

GRANGE MOVEMENT (cont)

http://www.longleafalliance.org/teachers/background/scanned/farming.jpg

grange movement cont3

Common Message:

      • Lower interest rates
      • Government control of railroads
      • Government control of banks
      • Increase in money supply
      • High tariffs to protect farmers from foreign competition
      • Eventually gave rise to Farmer’s
      • Alliances, which gave rise to the
      • Populist party!!!!!

GRANGE MOVEMENT (cont)

http://www.chrisharrisimages.com/farm-images.html

panic of 1873

Jay Cooke and company, the country’s preeminent investment banker, fails

  • Because it is the primary backer of Northern Pacific railroad, and had handled many American civil war loans (international crisis!!!!!!)
  • Many had borrowed money after civil war to get “back on their feet” so this hits many HARD!!!!

PANIC OF 1873

http://

panic of 1873 cont
PANIC OF 1873 (CONT)
  • RESULT?
  • The New York Stock Exchange was closed for 10 days.
  • Credit dried up, foreclosures were common and banks failed.
  • Factories closed their doors, costing thousands of workers' jobs. The
  • volume of destitute people soon overwhelmed the abilities of charities to function.
  • Most of the major railroads failed
  • By 1875, 18,000 companies had folded!

http://www.bobbrooke.com/bankrupt.jpg

populist party
POPULIST PARTY

POPULIST HERO, WILLIAM J. BRYAN

  • “MOVEMENT OF THE PEOPLE”
  • FOUNDED IN 1892
  • DEMANDED REFORMS TO LIFT THE BURDEN OF DEBT FROM FARMERS AND OTHER WORKERS
  • GIVE PEOPLE GREATER “VOICE”

http://history.smsu.edu/lwburt/Images122/WmJBryan2.jpg