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Tourism in Ireland: Observations on the Impact of European Union Funding and Marketing Strategies. Karen Volkman & Ray Guydosh Plattsburgh State University of New York ASAC 2001, London, Ontario. Introduction. Transformation of Ireland to . Celtic Tiger. Book of Kells. Observations.
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Tourism in Ireland:Observations on the Impact of European Union Fundingand Marketing Strategies Karen Volkman & Ray Guydosh Plattsburgh State University of New York ASAC 2001, London, Ontario
Introduction Transformation of Ireland to Celtic Tiger Book of Kells
Republic of Ireland Tourism Research Objectives • Objectives and Funding from ERDF • Labour Market Sector Employment/Growth • Tourism Sectors: Focus on Heritage • Expansion of Overseas Markets with Emphasis on Canada
History of Tourism Research in the Republic of Ireland • Tourism Not Recognized until 1980’s in EU • Pearce (1992) Study • Role of the Union in the Field of Tourism (1995) • CCSB Mapping Study - Queens U. Belfast (2000)
European Regional Development Fund • Created in 1975 • Funding Programs 1975-88, 1989-93, 1994-99, 2000-06 • Objective One Countries Greece, Portugal, Spain, Ireland
Objective One Regions • “Promoting the development and structural adjustment of regions whose development is lagging behind.” } • Eligibility: GDP for Three Years Prior to 1993 was < 75% of EU Average
Pearce (1992) ERDF 1975-88 • All EU Tourism received 1.9% Funding • Ireland received 2.4% of this amount • Ireland Didn’t Receive Any Funding for Tourism Until 1984 • Little Funding for Tourism in any Objective One Countries During This Programme
Green Paper (1995) • Support improvement in the quality of tourism by taking greater account of trends in tourism demand • Encouraging diversification of tourist activities and products by improving competitiveness • Incorporating the concept of sustainable and balanced growth into tourism by taking greater account of the cultural environmental dimensions
Irish GDP Background • Republic GDP increased from 60.8 (PPS) in 1986 to 96.5(PPS) in 1996 • Republic GDP increase much greater than other Objective One Countries • EU GDP Remained Constant • Republic GDP increased by 6.2%
Link Unemployment Rates to Tourism Industry • Unemployment Rate in 1985 is 18% • Unemployment Rate 1997 is 10.1% • Irish Tourism is Labour Intensive • 78% Lodging Facilities Have < 40 Rooms
Women in Labour Force • 105,000 New Employees Needed • 58% Employment Women 25-54 • Homemakers Tax Free Allowance of IR£2000 for First Three Years
Irish Tourism Niche • Tourism is 14% EU GDP and 14.6% of EU Workforce • Competition European “Sun Holiday” • Must Make Distinctive Sell to European and North American Markets
Irish Ancestry • Global “Irish Diaspora” = 70 million • Acquisition Irish Citizenship • Growth North American Tourism • 1988 419,000 Visitors • 1998 858,000 Visitors
Irish Image Abroad • Craic and a Pint of Guinness • One of Lowest Population Densities in EU • Tourism Brand Ireland (TBI) “A Green and Pleasant Land”
Irish Heritage TourismDefinition Brown and Stevens (1996) • Indigenous and unique in representation of an area’s history • Enliven, enrich, and animate those naturally occurring themes and storylines • Relatively stable base visitor activity • Innate appeal for overseas markets
ERDF Heritage Funding • 24% for 1975-88 Program to Museums, Historic Centers, and Restoration • 1994-99 Program 25% to Heritage Tourism Model
Current Tourism MarketBord Failte 1998 • UK 3,199,000 Visitors • Europe 1,255,000 Visitors • North America 858,000 Visitors
Development of Canadian Tourism Market to Ireland • Irish Descendents in Canada • 1991 Census: 3,780,000 Canadians of Irish Heritage • Irish are Fourth Largest Ethnic Group in Canada
Foot and Mouth • Images in Canada • Newspaper Advertisements from CFIA • Advertisement Campaign: Ireland Open for Travel
Prince Charles steps onto a disinfectant mat as a precaution against foot-and-mouth disease upon his arrival at the Ottawa airport in Ontario Wednesday, April 25, 2001. (AP Photo/CP, Jonathan Hayward)
Reflections • By 1990’s Tourism Importance of Tourism to National Economies Recognized by EU • Ireland Used ERDF Funding to Increase its Tourism Plant: Genealogy, Green Image, and Heritage • Combat FMD Image in North America Critical
Tourism in Ireland:Observations on the Impact of European Union Fundingand Marketing Strategies firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Plattsburgh State University of New York