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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior. Organizational Processes. The Individual. THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT. Group behavior and work teams Intergroup conflict and negotiations Organizational power and politics Communication. Skills & Abilities Perception

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slide2

Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior

Organizational Processes

The Individual

THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT

  • Group behavior and work teams
  • Intergroup conflict and negotiations
  • Organizational power and politics
  • Communication
  • Skills & Abilities
  • Perception
  • Personality
  • Attitudes
  • Values
  • Leadership
  • Communications
  • Decision making
  • Reward System
  • Job Design

INDIVIDUAL

BEHAVIOR IN THE

ORGANIZATION

slide3
First law of human behavior:
    • “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”
  • Caveat
perception
PERCEPTION
  • Perception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.
  • The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
  • Perceptual filters
    • how people experience stimuli
    • personality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differences
  • Objective vs. perceived realities
perception5
Perception
  • People perceive the world uniquely
  • Differences in perceptions can cause problems
    • Communication
    • Conflict
    • Motivation
    • Judgment
    • Decision Making
social perception
Social Perception

How we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traits

Similar to object perception, but

  • People are more dynamic than objects
  • We’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior
attribution
Attribution

Why did they do that?

  • internal causes
    • traits
    • skills
    • abilities
  • external causes
    • situational constraints
perceptual distortions
PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS
  • Selective perception
    • notice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations
  • Closure
    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing
    • we assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know
  • Primacy/Recency effects
    • Disproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulus
  • Fundamental attribution error
    • The tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes.
perceptual distortions9
PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS
  • Stereotyping
    • A person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects.
  • Halo Effects
    • Generalizing from an overall evaluation of an individual to specific characteristics and visa versa.
  • Expectancy effect
    • People perceive stimuli in ways that confirm their expectations
    • Self fulfilling prophecy
guard against specific biases
Guard against specific biases
  • Stereotypes
    • Be aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information, remain open to new information
    • Recognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individual
  • Fundamental attribution error?
  • Primacy/recency?
  • Halo?
  • Expectancy?
self perception
SELF-PERCEPTION
  • The same processes and biases lead to both accurate and inaccurate perceptions of ourselves.
  • Self-serving bias
    • attribute successes to ourselves - internal
    • attribute failures to the environment – external
  • Implication for feedback?
  • Implication of our own self-awareness?
jensen shoes
JENSEN SHOES
  • What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of Brooks and Kravitz performance, interactions, and career management thus far?
  • What were Brooks’ assumptions about Kravitz’s abilities, attitudes and motivations? Discuss the accuracy of these assumptions.
  • What were Kravitz’ assumptions about Brooks’ abilities, attitudes and motivations? Discuss the accuracy of these assumptions.
  • What perceptual biases and distortions occurred and influenced the interactions between Kravitz and Brooks?
  • What would Brooks and Kravitz have had to do differently to result in a more effective working relationship?
    • From their own perspective
    • From the other’s perspective
personality
PERSONALITY
  • Unique set of traits and characteristics that are relatively stable over time and determine a person’s preferences and behavior.
  • Does personality matter?
  • Implication?
  • Which dimensions of personality?
emotional intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
  • Ability to detect, express, and manage emotion in oneself and others.

Other

(Social Competence)

Self

(Personal Competence)

Recognition

of emotions

Regulation

of emotions

emotional intelligence20
Emotional Intelligence
  • Some suggest that EI is the best predictor of work success
  • It’s “learnable”
  • It’s related to communication, motivation (self and others), effective leadership

(Hendrie Weisinger, “Emotional Intelligence at Work” (Jossey-Bass, 1998).

self esteem self concept
SELF-ESTEEM (SELF CONCEPT)
  • How we perceive ourselves in terms of our abilities, competencies, and effectiveness
    • Global, role-specific, job-based, organization-based
  • High self esteem is related to higher performance, commitment, loyalty, and longevity.
  • What can managers do to foster high self esteem?
locus of control
LOCUS OF CONTROL
  • The extent to which people believe their actions determine what happens to them in life.
    • Internal
    • External
  • Why is locus of control important?
  • How?
jungs typology
JUNGS TYPOLOGY
  • 16 personality types based on 4 sets of preferences
  • Extraversion vs. Introversion
  • Sensation vs. Intuition (N)—Perception
  • Thinking vs. Feeling—Judgment
  • Perception vs. Judgment
the big five conscientiousness
THE “BIG FIVE”:Conscientiousness
  • The degree to which a person is dependable, organized, thorough, perseverant, honest
  • Most consistent personality predictor of performance
  • Also predicts lack of problem behavior
the big five agreeableness
THE “BIG FIVE”: Agreeableness
  • The extent to which a person is polite, good natured, flexible, cooperative, trusting.
  • May predict job performance in jobs…
the big five neuroticism emotional stability
THE “BIG FIVE”:Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
  • The degree to which a person is anxious, depressed, moody, emotionally unstable, temperamental.
  • May predict job performance in what type of jobs?
the big five openness
THE “BIG FIVE”: Openness
  • The degree to which a person is imaginative, curious, flexible, open to change.
  • May predict job performance where?
the big five extraversion
THE “BIG FIVE”: Extraversion
  • The degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, ambitious.
  • May predict job performance in what type of jobs?