Censorship • Think of a book or movie that has influenced you in some way • What would be lost if no one could ever read the book or see the movie again?
Types of censorship • Challenges to material • Banning of material • Destroying material
Where does censorship take place? • Schools: textbooks, reading material • Libraries • ?
Reasons for Censorship • Family values • Religion • Political views
General Principles for the Compilation of Blacklists1933-1939 • Literature that undermines way of thinking & living • Predominantly Jewish authors • “Cleansing” should be done in stages • Materials categorized in 3 groups: • Group 1 to be destroyed • Group 2 to be put into Poison Cabinet • Group 3 requires future assessment to be put into 1 or 2 • Replacement with new literature
Evaluation Guidelines1935 • Works of traitors, emigrants, anyone who attacks the “new” Germany • Marxism, Communism, Bolshevism • Liberal, democratic tendencies and attitudes • All historical works denigrating German culture or racial and structural order of Germany • Philosophical and social works dealing with false science of Darwinism or Monism
Evaluation Guidelines, cont. • Decadent, bloodless, or constructivist art • Writings on sexuality or sex education • Decadent writings of middle class urban society • All literature by Jewish authors • All entertainment literature that depicts life in superficial, unrealistic manner based on upper class view of life • All literature that ridicules, belittles Christianity “When Books Burn”, Univ. of Arizona
Germany, 1932-1939 • By 1934 over 40 agencies involved with banning of books • Those agencies compiled lists of 4100 publications to be banned
Top 10 Challenged Books in U.S.1990-2000 • Scary Stories (Series) by Alvin Schwartz • Daddy’s Roommate by Michael Willhoite • I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou • The Chocolate War by Robert Cormier • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
Challenged books, cont. 6. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck • Harry Potter (Series) by J.K. Rowling • Forever by Judy Blume 9. Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson • Alice (Series) by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor ALA Office of Intellectual Freedom(based on 6,364 reported challenges)
Reasons for Challenges1999-2000 • Sexually explicit challenges (1,607) • Offensive language (1,427) • Unsuitable for age group (1,256) • Occult theme or promoting Satanism (842) • Violent (737) • Homosexual theme/promoting homosexuality (515) • Promoting a religious viewpoint (419)
Reasons, cont. • Nudity (317) • Racism (267) • Sex education (224) • Anti-family (202)
Disney videos: Hercules, Pinocchio, Aladdin Ace Ventura The Lost World The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Bruce Springsteen CD’s Harry Potter What was burned?
Additional Reading • American Library Association Office of Intellectual Freedom: http://www.ala.org/alaorg/oif/ • The Censorship Pages: http://www.booksatoz.com/censorship/ • Book Burning: http://www.ala.org/bbooks/bookburning.html • When Books Burn (Germany, 1932-39): http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/images/burnedbooks/documents.htm