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Programmatic Research on Early Literacy: Several Key Findings IES 3 rd Annual Research Conference June 12, 2008 PowerPoint Presentation
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Programmatic Research on Early Literacy: Several Key Findings IES 3 rd Annual Research Conference June 12, 2008. Laura Justice School of Teaching and Learning The Ohio State University justice.57@osu.edu. Acknowledgements.

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slide1

Programmatic Research on Early Literacy: Several Key FindingsIES 3rd Annual Research ConferenceJune 12, 2008

Laura Justice

School of Teaching and Learning

The Ohio State University

justice.57@osu.edu

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Lori Skibbe, Ryan Bowles, Joan Kaderavek, Xitao Fan, Helen Ezell, Chris Lankford, Khara Pence, Roger Bakeman, Tricia Zucker, Anita McGinty, Sonia Cabell, Amy Sofka, Aileen Hunt
  • Institute of Education Sciences (Grants R305G050005 and R324A080037)
  • National Institutes of Health (NIDCD Grant DC04933 and NICHD Grant HD43204)
slide3

Continuum of Literacy Instruction

Emergent Literacy

Learning about

print and sound

Early LiteracyLearning to read:

Decoding

Conventional Literacy

Reading to learn:

Comprehension

Major Transition

Major Transition

Reading Development

some emergent literacy indicators
Some emergent literacy indicators
  • Listening to stories
  • Producing fictional narratives
  • Acting out stories
  • Writing one’s name
  • Writing letters and words
  • Pretending writing a story
  • Pretend reading from favorite books
  • Identifying major elements of a book (author, title)
  • Naming words in environment
  • Knowing the letters in one’s name
  • Reciting all the letters
  • Knowing some letter-sound correspondences
  • Detecting rhymes
  • Identifying alliteration
  • Producing nursery rhymes
slide5
Listening to stories (oral language)
  • Producing fictional narratives (oral language)
  • Acting out stories (oral language)
  • Writing one’s name (emergent writing)
  • Writing letters and words (emergent writing)
  • Pretend writing a story (emergent writing)
  • Pretend reading from favorite books (print concepts)
  • Identifying major elements of a book (print concepts)
  • Naming words in environment (print concepts)
  • Knowing the letters in one’s name (alphabet knowledge)
  • Reciting all the letters (alphabet knowledge)
  • Knowing some letter-sound correspondences (alphabet knowledge)
  • Detecting rhymes (phonological awareness)
  • Identifying alliteration (phonological awareness)
  • Producing nursery rhymes (phonological awareness)
slide6
Focus in This Talk: Print Knowledge
  • Writing one’s name (emergent writing)
  • Writing letters and words (emergent writing)
  • Pretend writing a story (emergent writing)
  • Pretend reading from favorite books (print knowledge)
  • Identifying major elements of a book (print knowledge)
  • Naming words in environment (print knowledge)
  • Knowing the letters in one’s name (alphabet knowledge)
  • Reciting all the letters (alphabet knowledge)
  • Knowing some letter-sound correspondences (alphabet knowledge)
individual differences in pk
Individual Differences in PK

(Justice, Bowles, & Skibbe, 2006)

slide8

Profile 2: 23%

Profile 3: 24%

Profile 5: 23%

alphabet

rhyme

print

concepts

name

writing

grammar

grammar

vocab

vocab

(Cabell, Konold, Justice et al, 2008)

slide9

ProgrammaticFindings

Observational Studies

Hypothesis Generating

Feasibility Studies

Hypothesis Confirming

Efficacy Studies

Effectiveness Studies

Fey, 2004

observational work
Observational Work

To identify specific mechanisms through which children learn about print within the shared storybook-reading context

(hypothesis generating)

Focused on shared storybook-reading context based on rich theoretical descriptions to date

sample studies
Sample Studies
  • Describe mothers ask about print and their relationship to children’s print knowledge(Ezell & Justice, 1998)
  • Describe the verbal comments children make about print when reading “print-salient” storybooks(Ezell & Justice, 2000)
  • Describe preschool teachers’ references to print for various genre (Zucker & Justice, 2008)
  • Describe the visual attention children pay towards various aspects of storybooks(Justice & Lankford, 2003; Justice, Skibbe, Canning, & Lankford, 2005; Justice, Pullen, & Pence, 2008)
  • Describe children’s verbal responsiveness to maternal questions about print on various topics (Justice, Mattingly, Ezell, & Bakeman, 2002)
some findings
Some Findings

Mothers make virtually no references to print when reading with their 4-year-old children (even for print-salient storybooks)

Maternal rate of five types of print references

when reading Spot Bakes a Cake;

Ezell & Justice (2000)

some findings1
Some Findings

PreK teachers use a greater frequency of print references (particularly to letters and words) when reading very print-salient books

Rate of print references positively associated with indicators of quality (open questions, r = .63)

Raw frequency of print references for three

high print salient books versus

three low print salient books;

Zucker & Justice, 2008

some findings2
Some Findings

Children make virtually no verbal references to print when they are read to by parents (even for print-salient storybooks)

Proportion of child verbalizations

focused on print for Spot Bakes a Cake;

Ezell & Justice (2000)

some findings3
Some Findings

Children rarely look at print when they are read to, even for print-salient books

But – differences in print fixations (17 vs 7) may add up (gap of 4,000 fixations on print in one year of daily reading)

Proportion of child fixations on print for

The Very Hungry Caterpillar and

Spot Bakes a Cake; Justice et al., 2005

some findings4
Some Findings

Children look at print much more often when adults nonverbally and verbally reference print

Differences in print fixations for print referencing style may add up to 18,000 in a year of daily reading

Proportion of child fixations on print for various

Spot titles; Justice et al., 2008

main hypothesis generated
Main Hypothesis Generated
  • Children’s contacts with print vary along a continuum
  • Many children’s experience with print is at “little contact” end of continuum – at home and in classroom

little contact much contact

feasibility and efficacy work
Feasibility and Efficacy Work

To test potential causal mechanisms under controlled settings

Feasibility/early efficacy studies may focus on determining whether hypothesized intervention appears to have desired effects, whether fidelity can be achieved, and what outcome measures are most useful

print referencing intervention the package
Print Referencing Intervention: The Package
  • Scope:
    • print meaning, print organization, words, letters
  • Goal attack:
    • horizontal (within session) and cyclical (between sessions)
  • Materials:
    • trade storybooks with print-salient features
  • Intensity: about 2-3 references per minute using:
    • Comments and questions (verbals)
      • Balance of evocative and non-evocative techniques
    • Tracking and pointing (nonverbals)
sample findings efficacy work
Sample Findings: Efficacy Work
  • Large effects on print concepts and concept of word and moderate effects for PA when parents implement at home for 4 weeks (Justice & Ezell, 2000)
  • Large effects on print concepts and moderate effects on alphabet knowledge when researcher implements in Head Start for 8 weeks (Justice & Ezell, 2002)
  • Parents who can implement intervention at home can do so with fidelity and have positive feelings, but many parents attrite(Justice & Ezell, 2002; Justice & Skibbe, 2008)
slide23

Example of Child Outcomes Study

Gain Scores

(%correct)

on 5 measures

Justice & Ezell, 2002

effectiveness work study 1 prek targeted
Effectiveness Work:Study 1(PreK Targeted)

Foci: effectiveness, implementation as moderator, child responsiveness, dosage

High dosage regular reading:

30 week business as usual reading program (120 sessions: 4X week)

High dosage program:

30 week print referencing program (120 sessions: 4X week)

Low dosage program:

30 week print referencing program (60 sessions: 2X week)

preliminary findings cohort 1
Preliminary Findings: Cohort 1

Daily reading vs Daily reading with Print Referencing

Justice, Kaderavek, Fan, Sofka, & Hunt, in press

effectiveness work study 2 ecse
Effectiveness Work:Study 2 (ECSE)

Foci: effectiveness for SLI, peer effects, parent and teacher implementation, child responsiveness

Classroom based regular reading, home based regular reading

(120 classroom, 60 home)

Classroom based print referencing, home based regular reading

(120 classroom, 60 home)

Classroom based print referencing, home based print referencing

(120 classroom, 60 home)

thanks
Thanks!

justice.57@osu.edu