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What Is Emergent Literacy? Session 4

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  1. Communication and Emergent Literacy: Early Intervention Issues What Is Emergent Literacy?Session 4 Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments FPG Child Development Institute, 2005

  2. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • define emergent literacy as the developmental process that begins at birth whereby children acquire the foundation for reading and writing. • describe two important models of emergent literacy. 4A

  3. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • identify six key components of emergent literacy for children with disabilities: oral language, phonological awareness, concept development, knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and of print/braille intentionality, alphabetic knowledge, and environmental factors. 4B

  4. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • define oral language, including listening comprehension, vocabulary, and narrative knowledge, and describe how it is related to reading and writing. • define phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness, as a metalinguistic process that contributes to emergent literacy and literacy. 4C

  5. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • discuss concept development, including the formation of schemas, and how it relates to emergent literacy. • describe knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and print/braille intentionality and their relationship to reading and writing. 4D

  6. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • define alphabetic knowledge and describe its contribution to reading and writing. • describe the relationship between environmental factors, including the communicative, situational, and sociocultural contexts within which literacy develops, and literacy. 4E

  7. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • describe effective early intervention practices for facilitating emergent literacy as collaborative and family-centered, developmentally appropriate, and based on evidence-based and recommended practices to achieve functional outcomes within naturally occurring learning opportunities. 4F

  8. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • describe strategies and interventions to facilitate emergent literacy—play, routines-based literacy, responsive literacy environments, shared storybook reading (especially dialogic reading, storybook preview, and storybook sounds), storytelling, and dialogue and how they facilitate the development of six key components of emergent literacy for young children with disabilities. 4G

  9. Objectives After completing this session, participants will • describe assessments that can be used to identify, plan, and implement emergent literacy interventions. • discuss the potential impact of visual impairments on emergent literacy, the challenge of determining whether children will be print or braille readers, and considerations for providing appropriate adaptations that will facilitate emergent literacy in these children. 4H

  10. Emergent LiteracyBegins at Birth • Emergent literacy is the developmental process that begins at birth whereby children acquire the foundation for reading and writing. • “The term ‘emergent literacy’ is used to denote the idea that the acquisition of literacy is best conceptualized as a developmental continuum, with its origins early in the life of a child, rather than as an all-or-none phenomenon that begins when children start school” (p. 848). Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998 4I

  11. Emergent Literacy is Appropriate for all Children • Disability, as well as the reactions of others to disability, can result in fewer opportunities for children to experience literacy. • Children with disabilities, including children with visual impairments, can and do experience literacy success when provided with appropriate support and modifications. Koppenhaver, Coleman, Kalman, & Yoder, 1991 Marvin & Mirenda, 1993 4J

  12. Family Literacy • Families are essential to emergent literacy development. • Reading and writing are usually first introduced to children in the home. • Researchers have repeatedly found that the home literacy environments of toddlers and preschoolers have measurable effects on later literacy skills. Marvin & Mirenda, 1993; Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994; Rosenkoetter & Barton, 2002; Weinberger, 1996 4K

  13. Family Literacy Characteristics Family and environmental characteristics that are related to literacy include • a variety of literacy activities in the home (e.g., many books and writing materials that are used regularly), • language and vocabulary used in the home, • opportunities for children to learn about people and activities, and • high parental expectations for child literacy. Bennett, Weigel, & Martin, 2002 4L

  14. Concurrent and Interrelated Development of Literacy Emergent literacy is based on the idea “that reading, writing, and oral language develop concurrently and interdependently from an early age from children’s exposure to interactions in the social contexts in which literacy is a component, and in the absence of formal instruction” (p. 849). Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998 4M

  15. The Interrelationships ofLiteracy Development 4N

  16. Interrelated Development of Communication and Literacy Young children’s abilities to • listen, • read, • write, and • speak (or use augmentative communication devices) develop concurrently and interrelatedly. 4O

  17. Function and Form • Literacy tasks have both functions and forms. • The function of writing a note to a family member can take many forms, such as writing with a pen or brailling with a slate and stylus. 4P

  18. Functional Literacy Events • Functions and forms of literacy are equally important in the development of reading and writing. • Young children learn the forms and functions of literacy concurrently through functional literacy experiences (e.g., writing a grocery list with a parent before going grocery shopping). • Isolated practice of literacy forms (e.g., writing the letter g repeatedly on the braille writer) would not be as meaningful as writing a note to a beloved family member. Koppenhaver et al., 1991 4Q

  19. Two Important Modelsof Emergent Literacy • Whitehurst and Lonigan (1998, 2002) • Sénéchal, LeFevre, Smith-Chant, and Colton (2001) 4R

  20. Whitehurst and Lonigan’s Two Domains of Emergent Literacy Whitehurst and Lonigan (1998) propose that emergent literacy consists of two interdependent sets of skills and processes: • outside-in • inside-out as well as a third group of “other factors.” Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998; 2002 4S

  21. Outside–in Domain The outside-in domain refers to children’s knowledge of the context (i.e., the meanings of words, concepts about the world, how narratives are structured) in which reading and writing exist. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998; 2002 4T

  22. Inside-out Domain The inside-out domain refers to children’s understanding of the rules (i.e., that letters form words, that letters represent sounds, that punctuation marks carry meaning) for translating print into sounds or sounds into print. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998; 2002 4U

  23. Whitehurst and Lonigan’s Domains of Emergent Literacy • Outside-in domain • Knowledge about the conventions of print • Emergent reading (pretending to read) • Narrative knowledge • Language (vocabulary) • Inside-out domain • Alphabetic knowledge • Letter-sound knowledge • Emergent writing (pretending to write) • Phonological awareness (metalinguistic skills) Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, p. 850 4V

  24. Whitehurst and Lonigan’sModel of Emergent Literacy “Other factors” include • phonological memory (short-term memory for phonologically coded information), • rapid naming (ability to quickly say aloud a list of letters, numbers, or colors), and • print motivation (interest in reading and writing). Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, p. 850 4W

  25. Whitehurst and Lonigan: Environmental Factors Whitehurst and Lonigan also emphasize the relationships of the home literacy environment to later reading and writing, particularly early shared reading and components of emergent literacy, such as • language development, • conventions and intentionality of print, and • print motivation. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998 4X

  26. Sénéchal, LeFevre,Smith-Chant, and Colton Sénéchal et al. (2001) propose that literacy evolves from skills and abilities that form three separate, but related, constructs: • emergent literacy, • language, and • metalinguistic skills. Sénéchal, LeFevre , Smith-Chant, & Colton, 2001 4Y

  27. Sénéchal et al. VersusWhitehurst and Lonigan • Aspects of Sénéchal et al.’s model of literacy closely resemble those of Whitehurst and Lonigan’s. • Whereas Whitehurst and Lonigan propose outside-in and inside-out domains, Sénéchal et al. propose emergent conceptual knowledge and emergent procedural knowledge. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998; 2002 Sénéchal, LeFevre , Smith-Chant, & Colton, 2001 4Z

  28. Sénéchal et al.’s Model of Emergent Literacy • Emergent conceptual knowledge (i.e., knowing why) • Knowledge about the acts of reading and writing • Knowledge about the functions of literacy • Self-perception of learning to read • Emergent reading in context • Emergent procedural knowledge (i.e., knowing how) • Preconventional spelling in a variety of situations • Letter knowledge • Letter-sound knowledge • Word reading (with help) Sénéchal, LeFevre , Smith-Chant, & Colton, 2001 4AA

  29. Sénéchal et al. VersusWhitehurst and Lonigan Whereas Whitehurst and Lonigan include such categories as language (vocabulary) and phonological awareness (metalinguistic skills) as components of emergent literacy, Sénéchal et al. identify two constructs as distinct from emergent literacy: • language and • metalinguistic skills. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998; 2002 Sénéchal, LeFevre , Smith-Chant, & Colton, 2001 4BB

  30. Language Narrative knowledge Vocabulary Listening comprehension Metalinguistic Skills Phonological awareness Syntactic awareness Senechal et al., 2001, p. 448 Language and Metalinguistic Skills Constructs 4CC

  31. National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) The mission of the NELP is to • summarize research on early literacy development that will contribute to education policy and practice decisions and • evaluate the role of teachers and families in supporting language and literacy development in order to create literacy-specific materials and staff development programs for families, educators, and family literacy practitioners. Strickland & Shanahan, 2004 4DD

  32. oral language/ vocabulary listening comprehension print knowledge environmental print alphabetic knowledge invented spelling phonemic awareness phonological short-term memory rapid naming visual perceptual skills visual memory Strickland & Shanahan, 2004 NELP’s 11 Predictorsof Literacy Success 4EE

  33. Key Components of Emergent Literacy for Young Children With Disabilities • Oral language (especially listening comprehension, vocabulary, and narrative knowledge) • Phonological awareness • Concept development • Knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and of print/braille intentionality • Alphabetic knowledge • Environmental factors 4FF

  34. Oral Language • Oral language is spoken communication. • Children’s mastery of oral language is most often measured by • listening comprehension or • size of vocabulary. • Oral language can also be measured by degree of mastery of grammar and syntax. Strickland & Shanahan, 2004 4GG

  35. Grammar and Syntax • Grammar refers to the system of rules that govern a language. • Syntax refers to the system of rules that govern, for a given language, how words are arranged to make meaningful sentences. 4HH

  36. Listening Comprehension Listening comprehension • is the understanding of spoken communication, including vocabulary and syntax. • is associated with the ability of preschoolers and kindergartners to decode texts and read with comprehension. • can be facilitated through conversations with children and through their active engagement during storybook reading. Strickland and Shanahan, 2004 4II

  37. Vocabulary • Vocabulary refers to the words used and understood by a language user. • Vocabulary development in children is related to the conversation of caregivers and to storybook reading—opportunities that promote oral language. • Vocabulary can be facilitated through direct experiences that develop concepts. • Vocabulary is related to reading success and reading comprehension in school. 4JJ

  38. Narrative Knowledge • Narrative knowledge is a set of expectations, or knowledge, about the ways in which stories conventionally proceed. • For example, through experience, young children learn that stories often begin with “Once upon a time” and end with “The end.” • Narrative knowledge is also called “narrative schema” or “story schema.” 4KK

  39. Oral Language Young children’s oral language, including listening comprehension, may be influenced by environmental factors such as • family values, socio-economic status, and culture; • family’s vocabulary and language use; • maternal education and IQ; • number of books in the home; • frequency of visits to library; and • active participation in storybook reading. 4LL

  40. Oral Language Oral language • is related to concepts about the world and vocabulary that will help with reading comprehension in second grade and beyond. • promotes narrative knowledge. 4MM

  41. Phonological Awareness • Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of oral language. • It includes the recognition that sentences are composed of words and that words are composed of sound units (syllables, phonemes). • Phonological awareness is metalinguistic. 4NN

  42. Metalinguistics • Metalinguistics is the study of language, not just as a means of communication, but as its own abstract entity. • Metalinguistics involves consciously observing or reflecting upon language use. 4OO

  43. Phonological Awareness • Phonological awareness includes children’s ability to identify rhymes, delete or add syllables or phonemes from words, and count the phonemes in a word. • Phonological awareness is related to the later ability to decode words and to read fluently. • Phonological awareness is also called “phonological sensitivity.” Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2002 4PP

  44. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is • the ability to detect and manipulate the smallest units of sound within words. • a component of phonological awareness. • demonstrated through the ability to isolate, add, or delete phonemes from words. • related to later ability to decode words and to use invented spelling. 4QQ

  45. Concept Development • A concept is a general idea that develops through repeated experiences with specific events. • Children need repeated experiences with specific examples to generalize concepts. Warren & Hatton, 2003 4RR

  46. Schema Schemas • are meaningfully organized cognitive templates or frameworks, typically derived from experience, that represent knowledge about objects, people, events, activities, or situations. • help organize concepts so that they can be retrieved efficiently; schemas assist in predicting what is likely to happen in a given context. 4SS

  47. Concepts About the World Gaining concepts about the world (schemas) helps children understand concepts in books. Making bread teaches children many concepts. A book about cooking will be enjoyed more if children have previous experiences with the concepts. Rosenkoetter & Barton, 2002 4TT

  48. Conceptual Understanding • Exposure to events in the home and community is essential for building concepts that support literacy. • Frequent exposure to meaningful and functional objects and experiences provides the foundation for concept development, communication, language, and literacy development. • Children with visual impairments may need assistance in generalizing concepts. 4UU

  49. Conventions of Print/Braille • Knowledge of the conventions of print/braille refers to children’s understanding of standard text formats (e.g., that texts are read from left to right and from top to bottom; that books are read from front to back; that pages are turned during reading). • Knowing the conventions of print/braille facilitates literacy acquisition in young children. Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998 4VV

  50. Conventions of Print/Braille Books • are generally made of paper, but can be made of other materials; • have pages to be turned; • may contain words or pictures; and • have pictures that represent familiar objects. Harley, Truan, & Sanford, 1997 4WW