Physical Activity and the Early Years Section Index Section 1 – Intro/Benefits Section 2 - Statistics Section 3 – Physical Literacy Section 4 – Activity Guidelines Section 5 – How to Get Kids Active Section 6 – Resources
Physical Activity and the Early Years Target Audiences (a) Municipal Council: Sec 1,2,3,6 (b) Early Childhood/Daycare Workers: Sec 1,3,4,5,6 (c) Public Health – Health Promoters: Sec 1,2,3,4,5,6 (d) Public Health – Managers: Sec 1,2,3,4,6 (e) Students – Sec 1,3,4,5,6
Physical Activity and the Early Years This presentation was developed by The Physical Activity Resource Centre for use by physical activity promoters across Ontario.
PARC Services PARC is the Centre of Excellence for physical activity promotion in Ontario. PARC is managed by Ophea and is funded by the Government of Ontario. PARC services support capacity-building, knowledge-sharing and learning opportunities. PARC services include providing: • Consultations & referrals • Trainings & workshops • Physical activity resources • Annual Symposium • Resource database Visit parc.ophea.net Sign up for our listserv
Ophea Overview • Vision • All children and youth value and enjoy the lifelong benefits of healthy, active living. • Mission • Ophea champions healthy, active living in schools and communities through quality programs and services, partnerships and advocacy. • A provincial not-for-profit organization - established in 1921 and incorporated in 1990 • Dedicated to supporting Ontario schools and communities through quality program supports, partnerships, and advocacy • Supportive of Health and Physical Education (H&PE) as a foundational component of healthy schools and communities
Introduction Welcome and Introduction! • Housekeeping • Objectives of the Workshop At the end of the workshop, you will: • Know the current physical activity levels of young children; • Be reminded of and amazed at the many benefits of physical activity and wonder why more children aren’t as active as they should be; • Be knowledgeable of the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years and be able to promote the guidelines to parents, caregivers and early childhood educators; • Understand sedentary behaviour, as distinct from physical inactivity, and be informed on how to reduce it based on your familiarity with the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines; • Develop an understanding of physical literacy
Physical Activity and the Early Years SECTION 1 Intro/Benefits Of Physical Activity
Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of a child’s physical, mental and emotional development. According to the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card (2010): Children under five require adequate unstructured play and time outdoors for physical, cognitive and emotional development. The early years are a critical period for healthy development. Research shows lifestyle patterns set before the age of five predict obesity and health outcomes in later childhood and through adulthood.
Benefits of Physical Activity Physical Strengthens the heart and lungs Helps build strong bones and muscles Develops good posture Increases energy Improves fitness levels Enhances flexibility Improves coordination and balance Helps maintain a healthy body weight Helps improve sleeping and eating habits Helps develop fundamental movement skills Enhances development of brain function and neural pathways
Benefits of Physical Activity Psychological / Emotional Encourages fun and makes children feel happy Reduces anxiety and helps young children feel good about themselves Prevents, reduces, manages depression Improves the ability to deal with stress Helps build confidence and positive self-esteem Enhances emotional development Helps young children form impressions about themselves and their surroundings
Benefits of Physical Activity Academic Helps: Improve problem-solving skills/abilities Improve learning and attention Increase concentration Improvememory Enhance creativity
Benefits of Physical Activity Social Teachesimportant skills such as sports skills and life skills Provides opportunities for children to practice/develop social skills and leadership skills Encourages interaction and helps develop friendships Develops positive lifelong attitudes toward physicalactivity Encourages healthy family engagement Helps nurture and promote imagination andcreativity
Physical Activity and the Early Years SECTION 2 Statistics
Physical Inactivity 69% of Canadian children are not meeting international physical activity guidelines. (Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card, 2010) Only 36% of 2-3-year-olds and 44% of 4-5-year-olds engage regularly in unorganized sport and physical activity each week. (National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth) Measures of physical fitness are declining. In children, there is strong evidence that the prevalence of obesity is at unprecedented high levels. Obesity levels are high even in the early years (0–4 years). Engaging in regular physical activity is widely accepted as an effective preventative measure for not only obesity, but a variety of health risks in school-aged children.
Physical Activity Levels Physical activity levels start to decline at age three. Compared with 3-year-old children, 4 and 5-year-old boys and girls spent more time in sedentary activity. Consistently, girls are less active than boys; in some studies - in children as young as infancy and 18 months. Boys engage in greater overall amounts of physical activity; they also tend to engage in higher intensity activities than girls. The estimated prevalence of overweight among 2- to 5-year old children in two different studies was 11% and 18%.
Heart Disease Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada $6.8 Billion Stroke Breast Cancer High Blood Pressure Type 2 Diabetes Colon Cancer Osteoporosis
Sedentary Behaviour These sedentary activities, especially those that are screen-based, are associated with… risk for obesity fitness, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour, academic achievement (Tremblay et al. 2011c)
Screen Time In 1971, the average age at which children began to watch TV was 4 years;today, it is 5 months!More than 90% of kids begin watching TV before the age of two. Compared with school-aged children, screen time may be associated with additional negative health outcomes in early years (Christakis et al. 2009; Lillard &Peterson 2011). Increased television viewing is associated with unfavourable measures of obesity, psychosocial health, and cognitive development. There is no evidence to support television viewing as beneficial for improved psychosocial or cognitive development.In several instances, a dose–response relationship existed between increased time spent watching television and decreased psychosocial or cognitive development.
Physical Activity and the Early Years SECTION 3 Physical Literacy
Why is physical literacy so important? Physically literate children lead healthy active lives. Children who are not physically literate avoid physical activity and may turn to sedentary or unhealthy lifestyle choices. Children who are physically active: are ready to learn, have better personal satisfaction, have better and safer relationship.
Physically literate individuals... move with competence and confidencein a wide variety of physical activities in multiple environments that benefit the healthy development of the whole person. -PHE Canada, 2012
Literacy Physical Literacy Language and vocabulary skills Ability to understand, communicate and apply Movement skills Ability to understand, communicate and apply
Developing physical literacy and participation in regular physical activity supports learning, readiness and positive behaviours. Academic Performance Self-esteem Anxiety & Depression Behaviour related problems
Physical Literacy HANDS UP | Part 1 - Introduction to Physical & Health Literacy
Who helps children develop these skills? Source: DevelopingPhysicalLiteracy, Figure 2 Who is responsible for Physical Literacy?, Canadian Sport for Life, http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca
Personal experiences with physical activity… What sports were you good at? What sports did you not like? Why/why not?
Physical Literacy For success in recreational and/or competitive sport, children must master fundamental movement skills before learning sport skills. For almost every skill, children need to go through a series of developmental stages. The challenge is to help them learn the next level of the skill rather than pushing them to perform like an adult.
Fundamental Movement Skills Kicking Swimming Hopping Throwing Cycling Crawling Climbing Skating Striking Running Falling Catching Jumping Dribbling Volleying Balancing Skipping Dodging
Physical Literacy Source: Canadian Sport For Life
Supporting Physical Literacy Evaluation Quality Programs and Instruction Supportive Environments Opportunities for active play
Physical Activity and the Early Years SECTION 4 Activity Guidelines
A Word About Infants Babies Need to be Active! • Physical activity helps babies to be healthy, alert, relaxed and happy. Regular activity establishes connections in the brain that lead to improved: • strength • endurance • ease of movement • flexibility • coordination • balance • Parents and caregivers also notice that with regular activity, babies are often: • easier to soothe • have better sleep habits • have improved digestion
A Word About Infants Physical activity helps to build a babies sense of his/her own identity. When babies control their movements better, they start to be able to make things happen in their environment. Moving and Growing. Physical Activities for the First Two Years Canadian Child Care Federation, Canadian Institute of Child Health, 2004
Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines:0-4 years These guidelines are relevant to all apparently healthy infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1–2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3–4 years), irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status of the family. Infants, toddlers, and preschoolers should be encouraged to participate in a variety of age-appropriate, enjoyable and safe physical activities that support their healthy growth and development, and occur in the context of family, child care, school, and community. Children in the early years should be physically active daily as part of play, games, sports, transportation, recreation, and physical education.
Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines:0-4 years For those who are physically inactive, increasing daily activity towards the recommended levels can provide some health benefits. Following these physical activity guidelines may improve motor skills, body composition, and aspects of metabolic health and social development. These potential benefits far exceed the potential risks associated with physical activity. The guidelines may be appropriate for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with a disability or medical condition; however, their parents or caregiver should consult a health professional to understand the types and amounts of physical activity appropriate for them.
Being active 0-4 years means… • Infants • Tummy time • Reaching and grabbing for toys • Playing or rolling around on the floor • Crawling • Toddlers • Any activity that gets toddlers moving • The activity should be more intense as the child gets older.