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Planning and Organizing Instruction. Mercer Ch. 2. Activity. Using large paper and markers, draw your ultimate classroom Explain each area and their relevance to the function of the classroom. Arrangement of Students. All students should easily see and hear the teacher

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Presentation Transcript
activity
Activity
  • Using large paper and markers, draw your ultimate classroom
  • Explain each area and their relevance to the function of the classroom
arrangement of students
Arrangement of Students
  • All students should easily see and hear the teacher
  • Teacher has easy access to all students
  • Teacher sees all students
  • Decide to put desks in clusters or rows
  • Place difficult-to-teach or off-task students in the middle of the room near the front
classroom arrangement
Classroom Arrangement
  • Teacher draw a rough sketch of the floor plan
  • Consider advantages for desk arrangements: vertical rows, group circles, and small clusters
  • Location of predominant activities
  • Number of students in the environment
  • Storage area for equipment
  • Need for special equipment for students with special needs
managing the physical environment
Managing the Physical Environment
  • Environmental Design
  • Classroom Arrangement
  • Complements to the Instructional Environment
  • Interest Centers
  • Bulletin Boards
environmental design considerations
Environmental Design Considerations
  • Sense of community
  • Personal territory
  • Authentic motivation
  • Classroom flexibility
  • Environmental acknowledgment
  • Flexible seating
  • Work aesthetic
  • Barrier-free
complements to the instructional environment
Complements to the Instructional Environment
  • Study Carrel
  • Provide a quiet place to study
  • Provide a comfortable place to read independently
interest centers considerations
Interest Centers Considerations
  • Characteristics of the user
  • Objectives that the activities are designed to meet
  • Interest value to the students
  • Procedures and directions
  • Materials or equipment needed
bulletin boards
Bulletin Boards
  • Most popular is to display students’ work
  • Can foster creativity by providing example topics or themes for student work
large group instruction
Large-Group Instruction
  • Advantages:
    • time efficient
    • Prepares students for the type of instruction primarily used in secondary education
    • May help students with special needs make the transition to general education classes
large group instruction cont
Large-Group Instruction Cont.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Difficult for teachers to deal with diverse abilities and skill levels
    • Questions may go unanswered
    • Distracted students may stay off task
    • Students do not receive intensive instruction
guidelines for large group instruction
Guidelines for Large-Group Instruction
  • Keep instruction short
  • Use questions to involve students
  • Use lecture-pause routine
  • Active participation among lower achieving students
  • Visual aids
  • Lively pace
  • Frequent change-ups
  • Determine rules during presentation and discussions
  • Use participation buddies to promote student involvement
small group instruction
Small-Group Instruction
  • Advantages:
    • Students participate more often
    • Teachers provide more instruction, praise, and feedback
    • Students can progress at their own pace
    • Less boring
    • Monitor student progress better
    • ELL students are more comfortable
    • Important for students with LD and EBD because they lack to skills to work independently
small group instruction cont
Small-Group Instruction Cont.
  • Disadvantages
    • Students are required to do more seatwork
    • More planning is involved
    • Teachers must organize instructional variables
    • Teachers must provide more instruction
guidelines for small group instruction
Guidelines for Small-Group Instruction
  • Establish rules
  • Make groups homogeneous
  • Maintain flexible grouping
  • Locate groups so teacher can see all groups
  • Place students in semicircle
  • Use motivational activities
cooperative learning strategies
Cooperative Learning Strategies
  • Peer tutoring
  • Classwide Peer tutoring
  • Group projects
  • Jigsaw
  • Student-team achievement divisions
guidelines for peer tutoring
Guidelines for Peer Tutoring
  • Determine goals for peer tutoring
    • Practice and learn targeted skills
    • Provide a review
    • Develop appropriate social skills
    • Enhance self-concepts
  • Determine target skills or content
  • Select materials
  • Design procedures for tutee and tutor
    • How to present the task
    • How to provide feedback for correct and incorrect responses
    • How to score responses
guidelines for peer tutoring18
Guidelines for Peer Tutoring
  • Assign tutor-tutee pairs
    • Across-class
    • Pull-out
    • Intraclass
  • Train tutors and tutees
  • Teach social skills
  • Review skills
  • Schedule sessions
classwide peer tutoring
Classwide Peer Tutoring
  • Three main features:
    • Peers are used to supervise responding and practice
    • A game format is used that includes points and competing teams to motivate students and maintain interest
    • Weekly evaluation plan ensure gains in student progress
classwide peer tutoring format
Classwide Peer Tutoring Format
  • Daily tutoring sessions of about 30 minutes
  • Tutor-tutee pairs work together for a week
  • After 10 minutes the pairs switch roles
  • Two points are given for each correct response, one point is given for a corrected response
  • Teacher moves around the room monitoring tutoring behavior – awards bonus points for good behavior
  • End of the session, students add up the points and record on chart
  • Friday the teacher conducts a more intensive assessment of the skills learned
student team achievement divisions
Student-team achievement divisions
  • Heterogeneous group of 4 students are assigned to a team
  • After teacher presents the lesson, the team works together to ensure mastery of the skills taught
  • Students take individual quizzes without peer help.
  • Quiz scores are compared to previous scores and points are awarded based on improvement