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PLANNING & ORGANIZING

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  1. PLANNING & ORGANIZING Public Health Department FakultasKedokteranUniversitasPadjadjaran

  2. Program management cycle (managerial functions) PLANNING & ORGANIZING Deciding what to do and how to do it ACTUATING & IMPLEMENTATING CONTROLLING & EVALUATING Acting to accomplish what has been planned Comparing the results of what was accomplished with what was intended

  3. PRE -PLANNING ANALYZING OF THE HEALTH SITUATION • Preparation for planning : • Government interest • Legislation • Organization for planning • Adninistrative capacity Program management cycle (managerial functions) PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FORMULATE HEALTH PROBLEM NO ASSIGN PRIORITIES AMONG PROBLEMS formulate priority problem for planning solution EVALUATE RESULTS ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES DESIGN ALTERNATIVE PROGRAM TO SOLVE PROBLEM EVALUATING & CONTROLLING YES COLLECT DATA FOR EVALUATION ASSIGN PRIORITIES AMONG PROGRAMS (SELECTION BEST PROGRAM (EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT) ACTUATING & IMPLEMENTING INITIATE AND OPERATE THE PROGRAM PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM DEFINE PROGRAM , ITS OBJECTIVES & HOW TO MEASURE ACHIEVEMENT Resources needed

  4. Planning • Fundamental function of management • Selecting strategies from among alternative possible course of action • Both for the enterprise as a whole and for every department or section within it • Requires the companies objectives to be defined and department goals to be set in order to meet those objectives and finding ways to achieve them

  5. Planning • Deciding in advance : • What to do • How to do it • When to do it • Who is to do it

  6. Reasons • To offset uncertainty and change • To focus attention on objectives • To gain economical operation • To facilitate control

  7. Types • Missions or purposes • Objectives or goals • Strategies • Policies • Procedures • Rules • Programs • Budgets

  8. Types of Planning 1. Time span/period • Long term  > 5 years • Middle term  2 - 5 years • Short term  1 - 2 years 2. Level of planning • Main (master planning)  Policy • Operational  Implementation Guides • Daily (Day - to - day planning)  routine 3. Scope • Strategic : Where we are going to be • Tactical : How we achieve the goals • Comprehensive : All aspect • Integrated : integration between prorgrams

  9. Planning

  10. Planning

  11. Evaluating alternative course Being aware of opportunities STEPS Selecting a course Establishing objectives Formulating derivate plans Developing premises Quantifying plans by budgeting Determining alternative courses

  12. Steps • Establishing objectives • Situation analysis • Problem identification • Determining priorities • Developing programs and activities • Evaluation

  13. Strategic Planning • SWOT Analysis

  14. ORGANIZING

  15. Organizing • Establishing an intentional structure of rules for people to fill in an organization

  16. Identification and classification of required activities Grouping of activities In light of Resource and situation Horizontal and Vertical coordination of Authority and Information Relationship Delegation Of authority process

  17. Organization • A formalized intentional structure of roles or position • Formal organization : intentional structure of roles in a formally organized enterprise • Informal organization : a network of interpersonal relation ship that arise when people associate with each other

  18. Organizational structure • Be design to clarify who is to do what task and who is responsible for what result • in order to remove obstacles to performance caused by confusion and uncertainty of assignment and to furnish decision making and communication networks reflecting and supporting enterprise objectives

  19. Organizing  make human cooperation effective • Levels of organization  limitation of the span of management (control)

  20. Wide span

  21. Narrow spans

  22. Purpose of Organizing • Unity of objectives : • an organization structure is effective if it enables individuals to contribute to enterprise objective • Organizational efficiency : • an organization is efficient if is structured to aid the accomplishment of enterprise objectives with a minimum of unsought consequences of costs

  23. Reason for Organizing • Span of management : • In each of managerial position, there is a limit to the number of persons an individual can effectively manage, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying variables

  24. Structure of organization : authority • Scalar : • The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position, the clearer will be the responsibility for decision making and the more effective will be the organizational communication • Delegation by result expected : • authority delegated to all individual managers should be adequate to ensure their ability to accomplish expected result

  25. Absoluteness of responsibility : • responsibility of subordinates to their superiors for performance is absolute, and superiors can not escape responsibility for the organizational activities of their subordinates • Parity of authority and responsibility : • responsibility for actions should not be greater than implied by the authority delegated, not should it be less

  26. Staffing • Filling and keeping filled, the position in the organizational structure

  27. Process of Staffing • Identifying work-force requirements • Inventorying the people available and recruiting • Selecting • Placing • Promoting • Appraising • Planning the careers of • Compensating • Training people

  28. Purpose of staffing • Objective of staffing : Objective of managerial staffing is to ensure that organizational roles are filled by qualified personnel who are able and willing to occupy them • Staffing: the clearer the definition of organizational roles and their human resource requirements, and the better the techniques of manager appraisal and training employed, the higher the managerial quality

  29. Process of staffing • Job definition : the more precisely the results expected of managers are identified, the more the dimensions of their positions can be defined • Managerial appraisal : the more verifiable objectives and required managerial activities are identified, the more precise can be the appraisal of managers against these criteria • Open competition: the more an enterprise is committed to the assurance of quality management the more it will encourage open competition among all candidates for management positions

  30. Management training and development : the more management training and development is integrated with the management process and enterprise objectives, the more effective the development programs and activities will be • Training objectives : The more precisely the training objectives are stated, the more likely are the chances of achieving them • Continuous development : the more an enterprise is committed to managerial excellence, the more is requires that managers practice continuous self-development

  31. Unity of command : • the more complete an individual’s reporting relationships to a single superior, the smaller the problem of conflicting instructions and the greater the feeling of personal responsibility for results • Authority level : • maintenance of intended delegation requires that decisions within the authority of individual managers should be made by them and not be referred upward in the organizational structure

  32. Organizing Staffing Organization Structure