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Organic Chemistry Introduction to organic chemistry Principles of carbon chemistry Principle of polymers Hydrocarbons Organic chemistry and biochemistry Take Home Message Organic Chemistry Introduction to organic chemistry Principles of carbon chemistry Principle of polymers

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organic chemistry
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home Message
organic chemistry2
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home Message
elements of the solar system importance of carbon
Elements of the Solar System: Importance of Carbon
  • 25 of 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life on Earth
  • Four of the above make up 96%!
    • Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H) and Nitrogen (N)
  • Compare to solar abundance and discuss relative to evolution of biochemistry in origin of life
frequency of carbon
Frequency of Carbon
  • Carbon as a building block
    • C is the 4th most common element in the solar system
    • Probably the same frequency elsewhere in the Universe
  • Conclusion: C is common throughout the Universe and is likely to behave similarly (C and its tendency to form covalent bonds) in most environments
chemistry subdivisions
Chemistry Subdivisions
  • Organic Chemistry
    • Chemistry of compounds in which C is the principal element (biotic/living and abiotic/non-living)
  • Inorganic Chemistry
    • Chemistry of all other elements
  • Significance of C in chemistry
organic chemistry8
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home Message
principles of carbon chemistry c s atom
Principles of Carbon Chemistry: C’s Atom
  • C is unparalleled in its ability to form molecules that are large, complex and diverse in structure
  • Key is the C atom (protons, electrons, and quantum mechanics)
    • C has ____ electrons
    • Little tendency to gain or loose electrons (i.e., no ionic bonding)
    • Greater likelihood for electrons to be shared in covalent bonds
    • Possible covalent bonds per atom from __ to ___
    • Most common elements with which C bonds
      • O, H, N and C (compare with prominence in living systems)
principles of carbon chemistry linkages among carbon atoms
Principles of Carbon Chemistry: Linkages among Carbon Atoms
  • Linkages among C atoms form macromolecules (define)
    • Chains of C (methane and ethane)
    • Branches of C
    • Rings of C (e.g., benzene)
principles of carbon chemistry functional groups
Principles of Carbon Chemistry: Functional Groups
  • Distinctive features of C macromolecules is a function of two aspects of the molecules
    • Carbon skeleton (chains, branches, rings)
      • Chains, branches or rings
      • Number of C atoms (2, 3, 4, etc.)
    • Groups of atoms attached to carbon skeleton
      • Called functional groups (some example)
        • Hydroxyl (OH)
        • Amino (NH2)
        • Phosphate (P)
        • Total of five different functional groups
organic chemistry12
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home message
principle of polymers introduction
Principle of Polymers: Introduction
  • Principle of hierarchy theory and emergent properties
  • Small molecules joined together to form large molecules up to 1,000’s of C atoms
  • Macromolecules
  • Infinite array of possible combinations, each with its own unique chemistry
principle of polymers
Principle of Polymers
  • In living systems, polymers of C results in four major classes of compounds that are of extreme importance
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
    • Lipids
  • Linkages between C atoms via covalent bonds
  • Calculating potential diversity of C polymers
    • Analogy to alphabet (26 letters) and infinite ways to “create words”
    • If 45 basic different C alphabet pieces, infinite ways to create polymers of C
organic chemistry15
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Carbon compounds with only two elements:
    • C and H
  • C-C bonding via covalent bonds (nonpolar)
  • Number of bonds
    • 1, 2, 3, or 4
  • Most simple compound is methane

H

H C H

H

hydrocarbons c to c bonding
Hydrocarbons: C to C Bonding
  • C to C bond can be single bond (C-C)

H H

    • Ethane H C-C H

H H

  • C to C bond can be double bond (C = C)

H H

    • Ethene C = C

H H

  • C to C bond can be triple bond (C = C)
    • Ethyne H C = C H
hydrocarbons groups
Hydrocarbons: Groups
  • Alkanes
    • Single covalent bond between C atoms
      • Methane (C1H4)
      • Ethane (C2H6)
      • Propane (C3H8)
      • Butane (C4H10)
      • Pentane (C5H12)
      • Octane (C__H18)
      • Decane (C__H22)
      • Pattern: CnH2n+2)
  • Alkynes (triple bond C = C)
  • Alkenes (double bond or C = C)
  • Aromatics (rings or cyclic C atoms)
    • Example (C6H6)
hydrocarbons saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons: Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  • Saturated hydrocarbons: maximum number of H atoms bonded to C

H H

    • Ethane or H C - C H

H H

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons: anything else

H H

    • Ethylene or C = C

H H

organic chemistry20
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home Message
organic chemistry and biochemistry
Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
  • Keys:
    • Structure of basic unit
    • Polymer structure
    • Functional group (e.g., OH, P or NH2)
  • Types of C polymers for biotic systems
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
organic chemistry and biochemistry monomers
Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry: Monomers
  • Carbohydrates
    • Glucose or C6H12O6
    • Functional unit: hydroxyl or OH-
  • Proteins
    • Amino acid
    • Functional unit: amine or NH2
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Nucleotide or
    • Functional units: organic N base, carbohydrate, and phosphate
  • Lipids
    • Fatty acids C16-18
    • Functional unit: glycerol (3 OH- groups)
organic chemistry23
Organic Chemistry
  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Principles of carbon chemistry
  • Principle of polymers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Organic chemistry and biochemistry
  • Take Home Message
take home message
Take Home Message
  • While the molecule of water is simple but exquisite and unique in its chemical behavior, the C atom is unusual and unique in its chemical behavior but for different reasons
    • Covalent bonding
    • Valence electrons
  • Unusual behavior of C results in extreme array of simple to very complex molecules as a function of
    • Polymers
    • Functional groups
  • Life as we know it is hard to imagine without C behaving as a polymer with covalent bonds to create carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids (C polymers)
  • Principle of hierarchy theory and emergent properties
exam coverage
Exam Coverage
  • Text
    • Chapter 9 (Atomic Structure; entire chapter)
    • Chapter 10 (Elements & Periodic Table; entire chapter)
    • Chapter 11 (Compounds and Chemical Change; entire chapter excluding pages noted in lecture and posted on the www)
    • Chapter 12 (Chemical Formulas; ONLY: pp 278-279; p 292 - Units of Measurement)
    • Chapter 13 (Water & Solutions; exclude pp 306-310 (electrolytes, boiling point, and freezing point)
  • Lecture Notes
    • Atoms and Elements; Valence Electrons and Bonding; Water; and Organic Chemistry
  • Labs
    • Physics: Electricity and Light
    • NO OTHER LABS FOR THIS EXAM
help or desperation sessions
Help or Desperation Sessions
  • Tuesday @ 5:00 PM in Honors Lounge
  • Wednesday @ 6:30 Pm in Honors Lounge
  • No lecture, questions only