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Communication. Is a symbolic process using symbols with SHARED MEANING to exchange ideas and information. MASS COMMUNICATION-(in general) requires symbols that can be relevant to a mass audience that is:. Mass Audience symbols. Highly Diverse. Mass Audience symbols. Highly Diverse

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communication
Communication
  • Is a symbolic process using symbols with SHARED MEANING to exchange ideas and information.
  • MASS COMMUNICATION-(in general) requires symbols that can be relevant to a mass audience that is:
mass audience symbols
Mass Audience symbols
  • Highly Diverse
mass audience symbols3
Mass Audience symbols
  • Highly Diverse
  • Widely Diffused
mass audience symbols4
Mass Audience symbols
  • Highly Diverse
  • Widely Diffused
  • Easily Distracted
mass audience symbols5
Mass Audience symbols
  • Highly Diverse
  • Widely Diffused
  • Easily Distracted
  • Increasing Fragmented
media criticism com 327
Media Criticism Com 327
  • Mass Communication defined
media criticism com 3277
Media Criticism Com 327
  • Mass Communication defined
  • Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large anonymous and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media.
media criticism com 3278
Media Criticism Com 327
  • Mass Communication defined
  • The units of analysis for mass communication are the messages, the mediums, and the audience.
media criticism
Media Criticism
  • Understanding the MESSAGE
  • Teleliteracy
  • Visual literacy
  • TV Programs and their styles
media criticism10
Media Criticism
  • Understanding the AUDIENCE
  • Identification/Classification
  • Consumption
  • Measurement
media criticism11
Media Criticism
  • Understanding the MEDIUM (Television)
  • Transmission
  • Reception
  • History
slide12
Television viewing appears to be effortless. To some extent it is, but it requires a set of skills referred to as “Teleliteracy” and “Visual Literacty”
the message
THE MESSAGE
  • Teleliteracy
  • The understanding of visual and aural production techniques not available in human perception and not a part of our physiological and psychological repertoire
unnatural elements
Unnatural elements
  • The Point of view editing in cinema verite(Pictorial storytelling)
unnatural elements15
Unnatural elements
  • The Point of view editing in cinema verite(Pictorial storytelling)
  • Time Manipulation

-Flashback, time leaps,dreams sequences,time lags.

unnatural elements16
Unnatural elements
  • The Point of view editing in cinema verite(Pictorial storytelling)
  • Time Manipulation
  • Extreme perspectives

-extreme zooms, aerial views, fast/slo mo,

replays

unnatural elements17
Unnatural elements
  • The Point of view editing in cinema verite(Pictorial storytelling)
  • Time Manipulation
  • Extreme perspectives
  • Audio tracks

-laugh tracks, mood music, voice overs, transistions

unnatural elements18
Unnatural elements
  • The Point of view editing in cinema verite(Pictorial storytelling)
  • Time Manipulation
  • Extreme perspectives
  • Audio tracks
  • Segmentation/discontinuity

-scene to scene, show to show, episode to episode to episode

acquired knowledge
Acquired knowledge
  • Repeated exposure
  • Assimilation (making sense of collective whole)
  • Suspension of disbelief
  • Cognitive Complacency
the message20
THE MESSAGE
  • VISUAL LITERACY
  • The Physiological & Psychological skill necessary to visual scan, mentally perceive & understand the outside world

or

The application of real world perceptual abilities to TV’s 2 dimensional world

the message21
THE MESSAGE
  • VISUAL LITERACY
  • Acquired and mastered through social experience & Interaction
  • Applicable to TV Presentation/storytelling that replicate real world experience ( Verisimilitude-appears real)
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world23
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity- the ability to focus on an object within a wide range of vision, giving it clarity=Camera lens
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world24
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity
  • Motion Parallax – Understanding that closer objects move “faster” within field of vision. (TV is flat.. No “distance” just illusion of it.
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world25
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity
  • Motion Parallax
  • Occlusion – Closer=bigger, capable of blocking sight of further objects
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world26
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity
  • Motion Parallax
  • Occlusion
  • Paraproxemics- Closeness = intimacy

Distance, camera angles=power, Dutch angle=something is wrong batman.

“The Graduate” “Push Nevada”

dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world27
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity
  • Motion Parallax
  • Occlusion
  • Paraproxemics
  • Perceptual continuity-Point of sight, we tend to focus on objects of importance, dominance, attention ie phone ring,
dimension life is 3d tv is 2d so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the tv world28
DimensionLife is 3D, TV is 2D so we must apply our real world visual literacy to the TV World
  • Binocular Disparity
  • Motion Parallax
  • Occlusion
  • Paraproxemics
  • Perceptual continuity

EXPERIENCING THESE IN THE REAL WORLD ALLOWS OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THESE ON TV

Easy transference..Mr Rodgers, West Wing

motion head eyes replaced by the camera lens
Motion…Head/eyes replaced by the Camera/lens
  • Pan/tilt
  • Dolly
  • trucking
  • Zoom
  • Crane
  • Wire camera’s – Sports applications
how do we make tv31
How do we make TV?
  • By pulling from symbols that reflect both internal reality and external reality& creating an interaction of the two.
  • A balance of part fantasy/part reality
reality breakdown
Internal reality

-artistic expression

-creative enterprise

-existing technology

-storytelling devices

-budget

External reality

-The human conditions we share

-The times in history we share

Reality breakdown
reality breakdown33
Internal reality

-narrative structure

-plot convention

-time frames-length

-dramatic formal

-Institutional constraints-fines

External reality

-societal norms

-legal system

-cultural values

-rites and rituals

-fads and fashions

Reality breakdown
tv programs35
NON-NARRATIVE

-non-scripted stories

-social actors

-directly address/ acknowledge audience

-cheap to produce

NARRATIVE

TV PROGRAMS
tv programs36
NON-NARRATIVE

-non-scripted stories

-social actors

-directly address/ acknowledge audience

-cheap to produce

NARRATIVE

-scripted story

-episodic

-actors-recurring cast

TV PROGRAMS
genre types of programs38
NON-NARRATIVE

-talk shows

-game shows

-sports

-reality

NARRATIVE

Genre/Types of programs
genre types of programs39
NON-NARRATIVE

-talk shows

-game shows

-sports

-reality

NARRATIVE

Comedy

-cartoons

-Seinfeld

Drama

-soap

-family

-SCI-FI

Genre/Types of programs
genre evolution
Genre Evolution
  • Caused by Audience expectations due to sophistication/boredom/competition
genre evolution41
Genre Evolution
  • Primitive – Original rules derived from old medium
genre evolution42
Genre Evolution
  • Primitive – Original rules derived from old medium
  • Classical – Matured and firmly established rules
genre evolution43
Genre Evolution
  • Primitive – Original rules derived from old medium
  • Classical – Matured and firmly established rules
  • Revisionist – experimentation, bending or breaking of rules (genre bending) ie

“firefly” sci-fi-western, “Mary Hartman” comedy-soap

genre evolution44
Genre Evolution
  • Primitive – Original rules derived from old medium
  • Classical – Matured and firmly established rules
  • Revisionist – experimentation, bending or breaking of rules (Genre Bending)
  • Paradic – makes fun of firmly established rules
genre evolution examples
Genre Evolution Examples

SITCOM

“I love Lucy”

“Father knows Best”

“Roseanne”

“Married….with children”

genre evolution examples46
Genre Evolution Examples

Western

“Lone Ranger”

“Gunsmoke”

“Wild, Wild West”

“F-Troop”

genre evolution examples47
Genre Evolution Examples

Comedy/Variety

“Your Show of Shows”

“Carole Burnett Show”

“SNL”

“Dana Carvey Taco Bell hour”

genre evolution examples48
Genre Evolution Examples

Reality

“Candid Camera”

“Cops”

“Survivor”

“Joe Schmoe”

tv programs are unique commodities
Immaterial

No Physical properties of ownership

TV Programs are unique commodities
tv programs are unique commodities50
Immaterial

Novel

No Physical properties of ownership

One time event

TV Programs are unique commodities
tv programs are unique commodities51
Immaterial

Novel

Nonexclusive

No Physical properties of ownership

One time event

FREE for all

TV Programs are unique commodities
tv programs are unique commodities52
Immaterial

Novel

Nonexclusive

Near-zero Marginal cost

No Physical properties of ownership

One time event

FREE for All

TV Programs are unique commodities
tv programs are unique commodities53
Immaterial

Novel

Nonexclusive

Near-zero Marginal cost

Rapid Product Innovation

Short Shelf life

No Physical properties of ownership

One time event

FREE for All

Value diminishes if not ever changing

Odds for failure are great

TV Programs are unique commodities
television in particular requires that the audience
Television in particular requires that the audience:
  • Return week after week
  • Season after season
  • Same time, same channel
tv programs audience56
Consumer

Target audience

Voluntary

Communal, yet isolated

Selective, yet uncritical

Delivered programs

Consumed

TV Programs audience
tv programs audience57
Consumer

Target audience

Voluntary

Communal, yet isolated

Selective, yet uncritical

Delivered programs

Consumed

Target manipulated

Demographic 18-49

Delivered to advertisers

TV Programs audience
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