Rural gender based violence: evidence from five Indian states. Malviya Dr E. Coast Dr T. Leone
Rationale: Violence against women (VAW) • Increases risk of HIV infection • Reduces effectiveness of interventions • Abstinence • Monogamy • Consistent and correct condom use • Need to better understand • Socio-cultural context of violence against women • Attitudes of men about VAW
Indian context • Reduction in VAW identified as key part of strategy to reduce new HIV infections • Very little known about VAW in India • NFHS III
Data • Quantitative (2004 and 2007) • Women aged 13–25 years • Men aged 15-29 years • Individual questionnaire • 2004 (n=2,458 women, n=1,341 men) • 2007 (n=2,371 women, n= 1,365 men) • Repeat interview (n=471 women) • Qualitative (all 2007) • Key informant interviews (KII) (n=32) • Focus Group Discussions (FGD) (n=25) • Interviewing the interviewers (n=24)
Data collection: 5 states Kanpur Kishanganj Aizawl Guntur Bellary
CHARCA: Coordinated HIV/AIDS response through capacity-building and awareness Goal: to raise awareness, decrease vulnerability, and reduce risk among young women age 13-25 in six districts in India. Methods: Peer-led activities, including peer educators Contextualised IEC and BCC e.g.: street theatre , Multisectoral approach Capacity building of the service delivery system e.g.: village information centres
Research questions • How do men and women perceive differences in risky behaviour? • How do men and women perceive differences in sexual rights (for example, coercive marital sex)? • What is the link between the perceptions of risky behaviour and reported behaviour?
Data collection process: Interviewing the interviewers • Under-used source of information about survey data quality • Difficulties surrounding survey-type response to questions about • sex and sexuality • violence • Interview interference from family members
Relationship of perceptions about sexual rights, behaviour and violence • Gender • Age • Education • Occupation • Wealth (women only) • Religion (women only) • Caste (women only) Summaries of significant relationships *** = p < .000 ** = p < .005 * = p < .05 Unless specific, all analyses are bivariate Logistic regression outcomes: • Mistreatment in the preceding 12 months • Experience of forced sex (not reported, not sig.) • A woman’s right to refuse sex (not reported, not sig.)
In the last 12 months, has anyone mistreated you? • 22% of women reported mistreatment in the last 12 months • Age *** • Education *** • Wealth *** • Occupation ** • Type of mistreatment • Push 28.3% • Punch 19.4% • Kick 11.0% • Verbal 35.7% • Other 5.6%
Who mistreated you? • Mother / mother-in-law 14.7% • Father / father-in-law 11.3% • Step mother 1.0 • Step father 0.6 • Son / daughter / brother / sister 20.6 • Husband / boyfriend 28.4 • Other relative / friend 14.9 • Teacher / employer 0.4 • Other (inc. stranger) 6.3 • Not revealed 1.8
Dowry-related violence “a woman married for two years was very much tortured by her husband and her parent in-laws for not providing more money…She belonged to a poor family but still her parents had given her fair amount of dowry however her in-laws were not satisfied and used to abuse her extensively. One day she was beaten so severely that her spinal bone was bruised and then she fell from the stairs damaging her legs. She is unable to walk and now stays with her parents” Male FGD 25-35 years, Kanpur
“A man aged 38 years used to drink and then beat and tortured his wife because of her extramarital affair. One day when she refused to give him money for alcohol he became very furious and after beating her he poured diesel oil on her and burned her up” Jagadish Tripathi Kanpur “Even if she is not willing to make relation [have sex] any day, her problems are not considered and her husband will have coercive sex with her after getting drunk” Female peer educator’s FGD, Kishanganj
Caste and VAW “Sexual violence is there in harijana ( Dalit ) colony…. people are taking alcohol at evening time because there is one sara [shop selling alcohol] there” Key informant interview, Female Panchayat Chairperson, Bellary. “Fights and verbal abuse are common among women of the lower castes while the women of higher castes feel more social pressure and hence do not go against their husbands’ [wishes]” Key informant interview, Anganwadi worker (pre-school nutrition programme), Kanpur.
Men’s reports of coercive sex • 24% men report sex with partner when partner unwilling • When his partner says no to sex… • 13% force her to have sex • 3% beat her • 3% go to another woman for sex
How often does your husband / partner have sex with you when you are not willing?
Conclusions • Substantial differences in perceptions of sexual and gender-based rights between men and women • Education
Marriage is risky for women • Less likely to report condom use • Frequency • Use at least sex • More likely to report coercive sex • More likely to report mistreatment • By both men and other women Married women often overlooked in focused interventions