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Assessment of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima ) in the Cape Fear River at Lock & Dam #1. Theresa Celia. Picture by Robert Michelson. Introduction. NCDMF. Range: St Lawrence River, Canada to the St. Johns River, Florida Size: Largest Atlantic coast Clupeid 20-24 inches

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Assessment of American Shad (Alosa sapidissima) in the Cape Fear River at Lock & Dam #1

Theresa Celia

Picture by Robert Michelson


Introduction
Introduction

NCDMF

  • Range:

    • St Lawrence River, Canada to the St. Johns River, Florida

  • Size:

    • Largest Atlantic coast Clupeid

    • 20-24 inches

    • Largest at ~30 inches

  • Sexual maturity:

    • Males – 3-4 years

    • Females – 4-6 years


Spawning migration
Spawning Migration

  • Anadromous

  • Begin migration at temperatures between 10 oC and 15 oC

  • High, stable, high quality flow of water

  • Latitudinal cline in post spawning survival

    • South of NC – semelparous – spawns once

    • North of NC – iteroparous – spawns two or more times


Shad fishery
Shad Fishery

  • Historically the most valuable fishery in NC in the 19th & 20th centuries

  • Since 1800’s, NC consistently ranked highest of commercial landings along the east coast

  • Declined by early 1900’s

    • Overfishing

    • Construction of dams

    • Habitat degradation in spawning areas

    • pollution


  • Commercial landings

    • 468,484 lbs ($111,609) in 1972 – 131,621 lbs (108,142) in 1999

    • Cape Fear River – 66,968 lbs in 1972 – 6,804 in 1999


Dams

  • Obstruct migration

  • Limit access to a diversity of habitats

  • Fragment habitat


Quaker neck dam
Quaker Neck Dam

  • Located on the Neuse River, NC

  • Prior to its removal

  • Beasley and Hightower, 2000

  • Implanted sonic transmitters in American shad and striped bass

    • Of 13 striped bass and 8 American shad, only 3 striped bass passed over the dam while submerged


Quaker neck dam1
Quaker Neck Dam

  • After its removal

  • Bowman and Hightower, 2001

    • 12 of 22 American shad and 15 of 23 striped bass with transmitters migrated upstream of former dam site


Quaker neck dam2
Quaker Neck Dam

  • After its removal

  • Burdick and Hightower, 2006

  • Sampled eggs and larvae

    • American shad

    • hickory shad

    • striped bass

  • Increase in the distribution of spawning activity

  • Substantial upstream expansion for American shad spawning activity relative to the spawning area before the dam was removed


Management plan
Management Plan

  • ASMFC (1999)

    • Fishery management plan

      • American shad

      • River herring

    • Five-year phase-out of ocean fishery

    • Each state required to develop a recovery plan for each stock under restoration


Management plan1
Management Plan

  • NCDMF (2005)

    • Eliminated fishing of American shad in the Atlantic Ocean

    • In 1995, a closed season was established for American shad

      • April 15 through January 1


Study area lock and dam 1
Study AreaLock and Dam #1

  • Location:

    • Cape Fear River in Bladen County, North Carolina

  • Built:

    • 1915

    • Aid waterborne navigation from Navassa to Fayetteville, NC




Modifications to lock and dam 1
Modifications to Lock and Dam #1

  • March 1997 (Moser & Hall, 1996)

    • Fish locking procedure modified

    • Lower lock gates

    • Retain fish longer

  • April 8, 1996, a Steeppass Denil fishway installed

    • Ineffective in getting fish past the dam

Picture by Theresa Celia

Picture by Theresa Celia


Field methods
Field Methods

  • March 6 – April 10, 2007

  • Measured (mm)

    • Fork & total length

Picture by Theresa Celia


Field methods cont
Field Methods Cont’

  • Weighed (kg)

    • Homs, model 10 scale

Picture by Theresa Celia


Field methods cont1
Field Methods Cont’

  • Sex determination

  • Removal of scales

    • Age determination

      • Individually labeled envelops

      • Not analyzed in this study


Statistical methods

Sex ratio

calculated by dividing # males by # females

Tested using a chi-square test

CPUE

Net

# shad / # drifts

H&L

# shad / hrs fished x # anglers

Regression analysis (Proc GLM)

Evidence of linear trend in CPUE

Z transformation

Standardize CPUE’s

Z = [x-mean (survey)]/ std (survey)

Technique used to standardize data sets to zero with a standard deviation of 1

Dependent data was modeled using a Proc GLM to determine if a linear trend was present

Assumption of normality

Statistical Methods


Statistical methods cont
Statistical Methods Cont’

  • Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (SAS Prox Capability) used to test normality

    • Normality was violated for the SEAMAP index

      • Often inaccurate at low samples

    • CPUE’s transformed using log (CPUE + 1)

    • All indices met criteria for normality

  • Mean scores analyzed for differences using NPAR1WAY procedure


Statistical methods cont1
Statistical Methods Cont’

  • Length-weight relationship

    • Determined by the following parameters

      • a (proportionality constant or intercept)

      • b (exponent) of the length-weight relationship of the form:

        • W = aLb

    • Logarithmic transformation as follows:

      • lnW = ln a + b lnL

        • a and b are estimated as least squares regression


Results discussion
Results & Discussion

  • # females > # males

  • Peak commercial fishery catch

    • Mid March

      • Majority caught in March

  • Peak recreational fishery catch

    • Early March and April

      • Majority caught in April


Sex ratio
Sex Ratio

  • Greater # of females caught

  • Significant difference in gear type and year

    • Commercial – majority females

    • Recreational – majority males

    • Greatest # of shad caught (n = 248) were males in the recreational fishery in 1995

    • Lowest # of shad caught (n = 0) were both males and females in the recreational fishery in 2005


Sex ratio1
Sex Ratio

  • March

    • Low water clarity

  • Some fishermen threw back males, keeping only females

  • Size of nets (5.5” stretched mesh)

  • Females larger than males

    • Females more susceptible to capture

Picture by Theresa Celia


Catch per unit effort

2007

Commercial

4th highest

Recreational

3rd lowest

Factors contributing to low CPUE for recreational fishermen

Temperature

Water level - March

Water clarity

Good for commercial

Bad for recreational

0 catches - lowered CPUE

Interviews

March > April

Catch Per Unit Effort


Catch per unit effort1
Catch Per Unit Effort

  • Commercial fishermen had

    greater # of years with higher

    CPUE than recreational

  • 2004 - highest CPUE

    • Commercial

      • (n = 19.70)

    • Recreational

      • (n = 7.00)

  • 2005 – lowest CPUE

    • Commercial

      • (n = 2.30)

    • Recreational

      • (n = 0)

Picture by Theresa Celia


Trip ticket data of the commercial fishery from 1994 2006
Trip Ticket Data of the Commercial Fishery From 1994 - 2006

  • CPUE – linear regression

    • Drift gill nets

      • Highest in 2003

      • Lowest in 1999

    • Set nets

      • Highest in 2003

      • Lowest in 1999


Non parametric test indicates no significant trend present in abundance
Non-parametric TestIndicates No Significant Trend Present in Abundance

  • Recreational

    • Highest (n = 1.00) in 2007

  • Recreational

    • Lowest (n = 0.14) in 1995 and 1997

  • Commercial

    • Highest (n = 0.88) in 1996

  • Commercial

    • Lowest (n = 0) in 2007


Trends in abundances
Trends In Abundances

  • Data not documented long enough to see any changes in abundances

  • 3 – 6 years to mature and migrate back to natal freshwater rivers to spawn

  • 3 – 6 years for 2nd generation to mature and migrate back to natal freshwater rivers to spawn

  • Can take 12 years (2 generations) of solid data to sufficiently analyzed and document population abundances


Mean length and weight in 2007

Males Mean Length

Range

325 mm – 470 mm

Mode = 370 mm

Males Weight

Range

0.55 kg – 1.70 kg

mode = 0.75 kg

Females Mean Length

Range

367 mm – 500 mm

Mode = 460 mm

Females Mean Weight

Range

0.65 – 2.50 kg

Mode = 1.4 kg

Mean Length And Weight In 2007


Length weight relationship
Length-Weight Relationship

  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

    • Significant difference

      • t-test (P < 0.0001)

    • Significant for both regression intercept and regression slope

      • Means:

        • Some years had differences in the rate of change and in other years, shad either started off heavier or lighter


Water temperature
Water Temperature

  • Primary factor that triggers migration and spawning

  • Other factors include:

    • Turbidity

    • water velocity

    • photoperiod

  • Enter rivers at temperatures between 10 oC and

    15 oC

  • Peak spawning at 20 oC in NC


Temperature
Temperature

  • Range

    • 11.67 oC to 20 oC

  • Commercial

    • greatest # shad caught at 12.2 oC

  • Recreational

    • greatest # shad caught at 20 oC


Trends in temperature catch
Trends In Temperature & Catch #

  • # of shad dropped during days of rough turbulent water

  • March 18th – zero catch

  • Water temp dropped from 14.4 oC to

    11.67 oC

  • Season started with water temperature at 11.7 oC with 42 catches


Trends in temperature catch1
Trends In Temperature & Catch #

  • This study indicates that there is no trend with # of shad caught and temperature

  • Regardless of temperature, some days the catch was high with a low # of interviews, and other days the catch was low with a low number of interviews

  • Correlation did occur with the # of shad caught and other environmental factors such as rough, murky and turbulent water

  • Trends with temperature and catch # may require a longer period of time to accurately analyze


Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Fritz Rohde, Biologist Supervisor of the North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries for his guidance, assistance, and editorial comments; Dr. Jeffery M. Hill Graduate Program Coordinator of Environmental Studies at UNCW for his guidance and support; Chip Collier, Fisheries Biologist of the North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries for his assistance with statistical data; Robin Hall, Lock Master at lock and dam # 1 of the Army Corps of Engineers for the valuable information on the lock and dams and operating procedures; The commercial and recreational fishermen for their cooperation throughout this study.

Picture by Theresa Celia


Literature Cited

ASMFC. 1985. Fishery management plan for American shad and river herring. Atlantic States

Marine Fisheries Commission Fisheries Management Rep. No. 6. 369 pp.

Bailey, M.M., J.J. Isely, and W.C. Bridges, Jr. 2004. Movement and population size of

American shad near a low-head lock and dam. Amer. Fish. Soc. 133 : 300-308.

Bigalow, H.B., and W.C. Schroeder. 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull. 53 : 1-577.

Bilkovic, D.M. 2000. Assessment of Spawning and Nursery Habitat Suitability for American

shad (Alosa sapidissima) in the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers. PhD. Dissertation, Dept. of Philosophy. Faculty of the School of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. 232 p.

Bilkovic, D.M., J.E. Olney, and C.H. Hershner. 2002. Spawning of American shad (Alosa

sapidissima) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers, Virginia. Fish. Bull. 100 : 632-640.

Boreman, J. 1981. American shad stocks along the Atlantic coast. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv.,

Northeast Fish. Ctr., Woods Hole Lab., Woods Hole, MA. Lab. Ref. Doc. No. 81-40.

Burdick, S.M. and J.E. Hightower. 2006. Distribution of spawning activity by anadromous

fishes in an Atlantic slope drainage after removal of a low-head dam. Amer. Fish. Soc.

135 : 1290-1300.

Facey, D.E. and M.J. Van Den Avyle. 1986. American shad. Species Profiles: Life histories and

environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic). Fish and Wildl. Ser. US Dept. of the Inter. Biol. Rep. No. 82(11.45). 21 p.

Johnson, H.B. 1982. Status of American shad in NC. NC Dept. Nat. Resour. and Community

Develop. Div. Mar. Fish., 68 p.

Leggett, W.C., and R.R. Whitney. 1972. Water temperature and the migrations of American

shad. Fish. Bull. 70(3) : 659-670.

Liem, A.H. 1924. The life history of the shad (Alosa sapidissima) with special reference to the

factors limiting its abundance. Contributions of Canadian Biol. New Series 2 : 163-284.

McCord, J.W. 2005a. Alosines. Annual Completion Report to NMFS, Charleston, South

Carolina. 20 p.

Moser, M.L., A.M. Darazdi, and J.R. Hall. 1998. Improving passage efficiency of adult

American shad at low-elevation dams. Compl. Rep. NC Sea Grant. Fish. Resour. Grant Program. 46 p.

Picture by Theresa Celia


Literature Cited

  • Moser, M.L. and S.W. Ross. 1993. Distribution and movements of anadromous fishes of the

  • Lower Cape Fear River, North Carolina. Final Report. US Army Corps of Engineers, Wilmington, North Carolina. 155 p.

  • Nichols, P.R., and D.E. Louder. 1970. Upstream passage of anadromous fish through navigation

  • locks and use of the stream for spawning and nursery habitat, Cape Fear River, NC, 1962-1966. 11 p.

  • NCDMF, in press. Kingfish Fishery Management Plan. North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries, Morehead City, NC 241 p.

  • NCDMF. 2000. Required state shad and river herring report. North Carolina Marine Fisheries Management Rep.

    • 42 p.

  • Parker, J.A. 1992. Migratory patterns and exploitation of American shad in the nearshore ocean

  • waters of southeastern North Carolina. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 12(4) : 752- 759.

  • SAS 1985. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 5 Edition. SAS Institute. Cary, NC. 956 p.

  • Sholar, T.M. 1977a. Status of American shad in North Carolina, pp. 17-32, In: (no ed.), Proceedings of a workshop on American shad, 14-16 Dec. 1976, Amherst, MA, US Fish and Wildl. Serv., NE Region and NMFS, NE Region, 350 p.

  • Ulrich, G., N. Chipley, J.W. McCord, and D. Cupka. 1979. Development of fishery management

  • plans for selected anadromous fishes – South Carolina/Georgia, Spec. Sci. Rep. No. 14, Mar. Resour. Cntr., SC Wildl. Mar. Res. Dept., 135 p.

  • United States Geological Survey. 2007. Retrieved from http://edc.usgs.gov/

  • Walburg, C.H., and P.R. Nichols. 1967. Biology and management of the American shad and the

  • Status of fisheies, Atlantic coast of the U.S., 1960. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rep.

  • Fish. 550, 100 p.

  • Winslow, S.E. 1990. Status of the American shad, Alsoa sapidissima (Wilson), in North

  • Carolina. NC Dept. Envir. Health, and Nat. Resour. Div. Mar. Fish., Spec. Rep. No. 52,

  • 73 p.

  • Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Picture by Theresa Celia


QUESTIONS ?

Picture by Robert Michelson


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