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LINUX

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  1. LINUX

  2. System Administration Agenda • Day 1: Introduction to LINUX • Day 2: Introduction to Progress • Day 3: Platform Specific - half day

  3. Introduction to UNIX • Linux Install • Storage fundamentals • Working with Files and Directories • Editing and Scripting • Utilities and Maintenance • Performance Monitoring

  4. Operating System UNIX is an Operating Systems (OS) • Developed in the late 1960’s by AT&T BellLabs • Since development gone through many revisions • Several flavors available

  5. Operating System Linux is an Operating System • Developed in the late 1991 by Linus Torvalds (and friends) • Open Source • Free Software

  6. Operating System • Infor Supported Versions • IBM - AIX • RedHat - Linux • Hewlett Packard - HP/UX • Microsoft - Windows Server • Infor Partner Supported Versions • Unixware - SCO

  7. Operating System • Made up of several programs, processes and configuration files Kernel System Parameters Device Files System Daemons Processes Schedulers

  8. Operating System Structure APPLICATIONS (SX.E/PROGRESS) SHELL (BOURNE,KORN, C, R) KERNEL HARDWARE

  9. System Hierarchy UNIX Operating System Progress Database SX.e Application

  10. Login • getty = get tty • telnetd/sshd • /etc/passwd • /etc/shadow • /etc/profile • /home/username/.bash_profile

  11. Environment Utilities # env List OS environment settings LANG=en_US LOGIN=aixuv0 NLSPATH=/usr/lib/nls/msg/%L/%N:/usr/lib/nls/msg/%L/%N.cat PATH=./:/usr/bin:/bin:/etc:/usr/vsifax/bin:/usr/vsifax/spool:/etc/default/vsifax :/home/aixuv0/bin:/rd/data:/usr/facetterm:/usr/bin/custom:/uniplex/UAP/bin:/us r/bin:/usr/bin/adm:/etc:/usr/sbin:/usr/ucb:/home/tversema/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/sbin EDITOR=vi LOGNAME=aixuv0 MAIL=/usr/spool/mail/aixuv0 VFAXDIR=/usr/vsifax/spool LOCPATH=/usr/lib/nls/loc USER=aixuv0 AUTHSTATE=compat SHELL=/usr/bin/ksh ODMDIR=/etc/objrepos HOME=/home/aixuv0 TERM=vt220 MAILMSG=[YOU HAVE NEW MAIL] PWD=/home/aixuv0 Standard input

  12. UNIX Commands Movement: pwd Print Working Directory # pwd /home Pathing: cd cd ~ cd .. cd ../..

  13. UNIX Commands Checking File Permissions and Sizes: ls List Directory -l -i -t -r # ls .profile myfile junk # ls -al List Directory drwxr-xr-x 16 root System 3072 Jul 21 12:29 . drwxr-xr-x 28 bin bin 15872 Jul 27 11:29 .. -rw-rw-rw- 1 root System 0 Aug 25 1997 .facetusers

  14. Wild Cards * All matches # ls -al b* bob bratt bradt ? Specific characters must match # ls -al bra?t bratt bradt

  15. Directory Structure / (root) root volume group data volume group usr home var etc rd db bi bob jean dan passwd trhead.db trhead.bi bin lib tmp spool adm tmp src opsys exec tmp

  16. Filesystems /var /var is a filesystem. A filesystem is an area that exists on your volume group where you can store files.

  17. Directories /var adm spool tmp news /var/adm, /var/spool, /var/tmp and /var/news are all directories (or better known as sub-directories.

  18. Files /var tmp bin cmru.dat login cmru.dat and login are files which exist in /var/tmp & /var/bin directories.

  19. Disk Layout Two ways to setup your disks: - Full Disk - Logical Volume Manager - LVM

  20. Full Disk Approach /rd /root /db /usr /bi

  21. LVM Approach Hard DriveHard Drive 100 GB 100 GB 200 GB

  22. NxTrend chosen method for datastorage Logical Volume Manager Freedom… Ability to cross several physical volumes with a single filesystem. Flexibility… Add additional physical volumes to the logical volume on the fly.

  23. Terminology Physical Volume = Hard drive that has been initialized for use in LVM Volume Groups = A named collection of physical volumes. Logical Volume = Entities upon which a file system resides. (swap) File system = Formatted area within logical volume to hold data.

  24. Typical Disk Layout Disk1root volumegroup (boot disk) Disk2 Disk3 data volume group

  25. volume groups Disk1 Files Systems root volume group (boot disk) logical volumes Disk2 Disk3 Files Systems data volume group physical volumes

  26. Journaled File System Structure Superblock Superblock - File system size and identification.

  27. Inodes Superblock Data Block Superblock Inodes Data Blocks

  28. Physical Volume

  29. 2000 Files VOLUME GROUPS 1999 Files

  30. Logical Volumes

  31. Filesystems

  32. Directories & Files

  33. Volume Groups Physical Volume Files & Directories Filesystems Logical Volumes

  34. Filesystem Layout * Redundancy * Performance * Growth

  35. Mirroring Production Mirror

  36. Striping

  37. Striping & Mirroring

  38. RAID - Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID 0) Striped DisksIf you are creating filesystems that need the ability to do many I/Os simultaneously, a better strategy for creating them is to use Disk Striping. (RAID 1) MirroredDisk mirroring provides a level of redundancy in your disk system. (RAID 10) Striped & Mirrored. RAID 10 is a new term describing the concept of using disk striping (RAID 0) across multiple mirrored pairs (RAID 1).

  39. (RAID 5).RAID 5 is a popular industry buzzword that has emerged in the last few years. This technology provides disk redundancy to protect against disk failure, with a lower cost than RAID 1.

  40. Review 1

  41. !!!BREAK!!!

  42. Linux Install • See install Doc

  43. Types of Files • ASCII • text files (readable) • binary • compiled programs (unreadable) • encrypted • file containing special characters (unreadable) • Determining File Type # file <filename>

  44. File View # more Display file 1 page at a time <enter> Moves down 1 line space bar Move down 1 page / ? Forward/Backward find n Next occurrence q Quit v vi editor

  45. ASCII $ more /etc/passwd root:!:0:0:root:/:/bin/ksh daemon:!:1:1::/etc: bin:!:2:2::/bin: sys:!:3:3::/usr/sys: adm:!:4:4::/var/adm: uucp:!:5:5::/usr/lib/uucp: guest:!:100:100::/home/guest:/usr/bin/ksh nobody:!:4294967294:4294967294::/: kevina:!:200:1::/home/kevina:/usr/bin/ksh

  46. Binary / Encrypted $ more /usr/bin/awk ^Aß^D2ûïXH^P^G^A^K^A^A:¬ð^Pþpê¤^P^AìM-^@^B ^B^D^C^E^C1L.text^P^A^P^A^A:¬^A að^P^A;°@.bssð^Pð^PþpM-^@.loader>^E^B+À^PM-^PbM-^PM-^B^D|^^øM-^AB^P9 e)^D^BM-^Q* #x|¯+xM-^Câ^TH]M-^@A^T}Äsx}å{xM-^@â^\9M-^Q^GHe`M-^@,^GAM-^@b^LH^EM-^YM-^@A^T^L @ M-^AM-^B^XM-^PA^TM-^@^LM-^@L^D| ^C¦NM-^@^D ^LM-^@¾!ÿÄ^B¦;^DM-^PM-^T!ÿM-^@:ãM-^P¡ ^TM-^HãM-^B"$(^Ga8`ÿÿ8M-^Q9^AM-^@â(@±^GH^DiM-^@A^T0M-^Q^D8`^CH^DYM-^@A^TM-^A^B0M ^Aÿÿ1(ÿÿ})A^PM-^Q'H^DMM-^@A^T,^W^AM-^BÂ<M-^Câ@M-^Pv0Ñ0@M-^B08M-^@^A8 5H^DIM-^@A^ ^T8`^BH^DuM-^@A^T0q^PH^DM-^MM-^@A^TM-^@âTM-^PgH^D¡`8`^A8M-^XH^R `M-^@âM-^D0±^XM- M-^@A^T,^Cÿÿ8ÿ2q 3'@: ^AAM-^B^A,3qØM-^C¢^B\3ñM-^DM-^CÂM-^LM-^CM-^BM-^PM-^CB^A/M-

  47. File View # pg Page a File <enter> Moves down 1 page +/-? Moves up/down by the number you input. $ Last Page q Quit

  48. File View # head filename Display the beginning of file Displays the first 20 lines from a file # head -100 /usr/tmp/rptlog /smit.log # tail filename Display the end of file Displays the last 10 lines from a file # tail -100 /usr/tmp/rptlog /smit.log

  49. File Manipulation # mv filename newfile Move a File # rm filename Remove a File -i interactive -r recursive # cp filename newfile Copy a File

  50. Directories # mkdir Make a Directory # mvdir Move a Directory # rmdir Remove a Directory