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Credibility and Reasoning. Describing Credibility. Credibility is the audience’s attitude toward or perception of the speaker. Components of Credibility Competence Perceptions of the speaker’s intelligence, expertise Character Perceptions of the speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness

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describing credibility
Describing Credibility
  • Credibility is the audience’s attitude toward or perception of the speaker.
  • Components of Credibility
    • Competence
      • Perceptions of the speaker’s intelligence, expertise
    • Character
      • Perceptions of the speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness
    • Dynamism
      • Perceptions of the speaker’s energy, enthusiasm
3 types of credibility
3 Types of Credibility
  • 3 Types of Credibility:
    • Initial
    • Derived
    • Terminal
  • Stems from how the audience perceives:
    • you
    • cause(s) you represent
    • the group(s) you represent
strategies to enhance credibility
Strategies to Enhance Credibility
  • Explain your competence
  • Establish common ground
  • Deliver your speech fluently, expressively, and with conviction
evidence
Evidence
  • Can be in the form of examples, statistics, & testimony
  • Use Evidence that is specific, novel, from credible sources, and made clear (relevant to the point).
  • Importance:
    • Especially when you’re not recognized as an expert
    • Or when target audience opposes your views
reasoning
Reasoning
  • Drawing a Conclusion Based on Evidence
  • Reasoning from Specific Instances
    • Progress from a number of facts to a general conclusion
    • Beware of hasty &/or sweeping generalizations
    • Be careful with wording (don’t overstate facts)
    • Reinforce the argument with statistics or testimony
reasoning from principle
Reasoning from Principle
  • Move from general principle to specific conclusion
  • Make certain audience accepts the general principle
  • Make sure audience will accept the minor premise
causal reasoning
Causal Reasoning
  • Tries to establish cause and effect relationship
  • Avoid fallacy of false cause
  • Avoid fallacy of misidentification of the cause (correlation NE causation)
  • Avoid the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy
  • Avoid the slippery slope fallacy
analogical reasoning
Analogical Reasoning
  • Compares 2 similar cases to draw conclusion that what is true in 1 will also be true in the other
  • Valid if the cases are essentially alike
emotional appeals
Emotional Appeals
  • Intend to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, fearful, reverent, etc.
  • 3 ways to generate emotional appeals
    • emotionally charged language
    • vivid examples
    • sincerity and conviction
  • Make sure they are appropriate to the topic
  • Do not substitute emotional appeals for evidence and reasoning