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Electronic Work Flow - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 13 Electronic Work Flow Objectives Distinguish between analog form and digital form. State the functions of word processing, page composition, and illustration programs. Explain the functions of PDLs.

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objectives
Objectives
  • Distinguish between analog form and digital form.
  • State the functions of word processing, page composition, and illustration programs.
  • Explain the functions of PDLs.
  • Summarize the functions of Print Production Format (PPF) and Job Definition Format (JDF).

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

objectives4
Objectives
  • Cite the definition of preflighting and explain its importance to prepress production.
  • Describe the basic creation, transmission, and output of electronic media.
  • List proofing methods used in the printing industry.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

objectives5
Objectives
  • Identify the basic functions of raster image processors (RIPs), imagesetters, and platesetters.
  • Define digital printing.

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analog vs digital
Analog vs. Digital
  • Most images enter the work flow in analog form and are converted to digital form
  • Analog imagesare continuous and can vary in density
  • Digital imagesconsist of cells on a grid (pixels)

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the transition to digital
The Transition to Digital
  • Image reproduction was originally limited to type and black-and-white line drawings
  • Invention of photography in the 1800s made it possible to capture photographic images
  • Reproducing these images was not possible until the invention of the halftone screen in 1886
  • Electronic scanners and digital cameras are used now

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

computer platforms
Computer Platforms
  • Major ones in use today:
    • PC
    • Macintosh computer
  • Defined by operating system used
  • Many service bureaususe a particular platform
  • Cross-platform programs, formats, or devices work on different platforms

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

software programs
Software Programs
  • Used for many applications in the printing industry
  • Text creation and editing are done in word processing programs
  • Text can be imported into a page composition program
  • Other software is used for image creation and manipulation and imposition

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paint programs
Create or transform images into bitmap graphics

Bitmap graphic—pattern of pixels arranged on a grid

Number of bits in a pixel is the bit depth

Paint Programs

One-Bit Pixels

Eight-Bit Pixels

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draw programs
Draw Programs
  • Use straight and curved lines to produce vector graphics
  • Vector graphics are represented as mathematical formulas
    • Can be greatly enlarged and still remain sharp
    • Require less computer memory than bitmap files

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

image manipulation programs
Image Manipulation Programs
  • Paint programs that generate bitmap graphics
  • More advanced programs allow manipulation of almost any aspect of an image
    • Cropping images
    • Changing color and contrast
    • Removing and replicating images

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page composition programs
Page Composition Programs
  • Integrate files produced by very different types of software
  • Understand different languages used and translate elements into a common language

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translating files
Translating Files
  • PDL directs imaging performed by the output devices
  • Interpreterstranslate PostScript page descriptions line by line into patterns of dots or pixels
  • Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) filesinclude low-resolution representations of documents

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

portable document format pdf
Portable Document Format (PDF)
  • Evolved out of PostScript technology
  • Designed to support:
    • CD-ROMs
    • Internet- and intranet-page production
    • Digital-printing technologies
    • Digital work flow of computer-to-plate (CTP) technology
  • A good preflighting tool

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integrating all of production
Integrating All of Production
  • International Cooperation for Integration of Prepress, Press, and Postpress (CIP3)was created to reduce compatibility problems
  • CIP3 produced Print Production Format (PPF)
  • PPF evolved into Job Definition Format (JDF)

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desktop publishing
Desktop Publishing
  • Basis for all electronic prepress
  • Used to produce art, copy, and page composition
  • Pages are output as laser proofs
  • Corrected files are translated to PostScript format and sent to printer

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stages of electronic prepress
Stages of Electronic Prepress

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power supply
Power Supply
  • When electrical power supply is disrupted, digital work flow is halted
  • An uninterruptible power supplysaves time and prevents work-flow interruptions
  • Desktop computers can use a small battery supply
  • Some uninterruptible power-supply systems protect from power surges

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service bureaus
Service Bureaus
  • Contracted by publishers to scan high-resolution images or output film
  • Provide link between publishers or ad agencies and printers
  • Some offer a full range of prepress services
  • Output service bureauslimit their services to high-resolution output from PostScript files

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

file formats
File Formats
  • Attention must be paid to the format in which data is stored
  • Text files can be saved in various formats and reformatted for use in other programs
  • Graphic image formats are not as flexible

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caution
Caution
  • Digital data can become damaged or corrupted
  • Always back up your files on a regular basis
  • When you make backup copies, you are copying your files to a second medium as a precaution, in case the first medium fails or is destroyed

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file naming conventions
File-Naming Conventions
  • Carefully naming files keeps work organized
    • File names should not begin with a space
    • Each file name should be unique
    • Only alphanumeric characters should be used
    • Appropriate file extensions should be used
  • Automatic picture replacement (APR) files should not be renamed because the name of the file links to high-res image

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preflighting
Preflighting
  • Orderly review of files to identify problems:
    • No laser proofs supplied
    • Incorrect page sizes
    • Inadequate image bleeds
    • Scans supplied in wrong file format
  • Scitex Graphic Arts Users Association (SGAUA) publishes the Computer Ready Electronic File (CREF) II guidelines

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preflighting chart
Preflighting Chart

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preflighting chart cont
Preflighting Chart (Cont.)

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checklist for materials
Checklist for Materials

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file repair
File Repair
  • Digitally send files to a data-repair and -recovery service
  • Purchase file-repair software
    • Repairs certain film formats, media, or application files
    • Recovers graphics files that were accidentally deleted

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

monitors
Monitors
  • Software used for word processing and page layout provides a What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) display
  • Color-management software provides a What You See Is What You Print (WYSIWYP) display
  • Resolution and dot pitch are important

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types of monitors
Types of Monitors
  • Cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors
    • Images are generated from beams of electrons striking phosphors on inside of screen
  • Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors
    • Consist of a coating of liquid crystals between two thin sheets of polarized glass
  • Plasma display monitors
    • Cells containing plasma are activated by a small electric current

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crt monitors
CRT Monitors

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lcd monitors
LCD Monitors

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plasma display monitors
Plasma Display Monitors

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types of printers
Types of Printers
  • Dot matrix printers
  • Ink-jet printers
  • Laser printers
  • Thermal printers
  • Dye sublimation printers

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types of ink jet printers
Types of Ink-Jet Printers
  • Drop-on-demand ink-jet printers
    • Thermal ink-jet printers
    • Piezoelectric ink-jet printers
  • Continuous ink-jet printers
    • Emit a steady stream of droplets that receive electrical charges
    • Designed more for speed than image quality

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thermal ink jet printers
Thermal Ink-Jet Printers

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piezoelectric ink jet printers
Piezoelectric Ink-Jet Printers

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laser printers
Laser Printers

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engine speed
Engine Speed
  • Maximum number of pages the printer can output in full- or single-color mode
  • Measured in pages per minute

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caution40
Caution
  • Some ink-jet and laser printers use agents that can be irritating or toxic
  • Laser toner can be an irritant to the respiratory tract and eyes
  • MSDSs are available from the toner vendor or manufacturer

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types of proofs
Types ofProofs
  • Hard proofs
  • Soft proofs
  • Digital proofs
  • Contract proofs

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proofing
Proofing
  • Customers often require proofs that accurately represent color and halftone reproduction
  • Digital-proofing systems can simulate the dot gainexpected on press
  • Remote proofingallows a printer to send digital files to out-of-town clients

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imagesetters
Imagesetters

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types of imagesetters
Types of Imagesetters

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imagesetter calibration
Imagesetter Calibration
  • Ensures high-quality output and repeatability
  • Imagesetter maintenance is important

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platesetters
Platesetters
  • Eliminate the need for film by exposing directly to plate material
  • Categories:
    • Flatbed platesetters
    • Internal-drum platesetters
    • External-drum platesetters

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imagesetting systems
Imagesetting Systems
  • Consist of imagesetter and raster image processor (RIP)
  • RIP translates language of page-layout software into language of imagesetters and platesetters
  • Conversion of vector images to raster images is rasterization
  • Interpreter in the hardwareconverts files

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rip conversion
RIP Conversion

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automated ink control
Automated Ink Control
  • In the past, ink keys were manually set to ensure that areas of the plate received the right amount of ink
  • In the 1900s, plate scanners were developed, which set ink controls automatically
  • Now, digital data from the RIP can also set the ink keys automatically

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digital printing
Digital Printing
  • Any method of printing in which imaging of the plate occurs on press
  • Includes two processes:
    • Digital imaging (DI) technology
      • Advantages are shorter production time, reduced labor costs, cost-effective short runs, and greater registration control
    • Digital toner-based press technology
      • Main advantage is variable data printing (VDP)

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the internet
The Internet
  • Used to communicate, transfer documents, and sell products and services
  • Originally developed for the military
  • Fastest growing part is the World Wide Web (WWW)

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review questions
Review Questions
  • What is the main difference between analog form and digital form?

Analog images are continuous and can vary in density, while digital images consist of tiny cells on a very fine grid.

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review questions53
Review Questions
  • Text creation and editing should be done in a(n) _____ program.

word processing

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review questions54
Review Questions
  • What is the main function of a PDL?

A PDL directs the imaging that an output device performs.

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review questions55
Review Questions
  • PPF evolved into _____, which is a standard method of communication that eliminates the need for data to be reentered as a job moves from one system to another during production.

Job Definition Format (JDF)

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review questions56
Review Questions
  • What do we call the orderly review of files to identify potential problems that could occur during production?

Preflighting

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review questions57
Review Questions
  • Which of the following types of printers operates very similarly to photocopying machines?
  • A. Dot matrix printer
  • B. Dye sublimation printer
  • C. Ink-jet printer
  • D. Laser printer

D. Laser printer

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review questions58
Review Questions
  • What is the difference between hard proofs and soft proofs?

Hard proofs are tangible sheets of paper made directly from digital files, while soft proofs are the images displayed on a computer monitor.

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review questions59
Review Questions
  • A(n) _____ is a high-resolution output device that takes bitmap data generated by a RIP and writes it to film, paper, or printing plates, using a laser that writes the data line by line.

imagesetter

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review questions60
Review Questions
  • What is digital printing?

Any reproduction technology that receives electronic files and uses spots (or dots) for replication.

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