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Calvin Academy of Life Long Learning The Real C.S. Lewis: His Life and Writings Compiled by Paulo F. Ribeiro, MBA, PhD, PE, IEEE Fellow. Session V. Spring 2003, AD SB 101. The Real C.S. Lewis: His Life and Writings Provisional Schedule

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Calvin Academy of Life Long Learning

The Real C.S. Lewis: His Life and Writings

Compiled by Paulo F. Ribeiro, MBA, PhD, PE, IEEE Fellow

Session V

Spring 2003, AD

SB 101

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The Real C.S. Lewis: His Life and Writings

  • Provisional Schedule
    • 3/13/ - Surprised by Joy: The Chronology and Development of a Tough And Holistic Christian Mind
    • 3/20 - Mere Christianity: Orthodoxy and Basic Christian Doctrines (Other books: Reflections on the Psalms and Miracles)
    • 3/27 - Screwtape Letters: Hell and Heaven
    • 4/3 - God in the Dock: Common Sense Christian Practice
    • 4/10 – Narnia: Imagination For Kingdom’s Service
    • 4/24- The Last Ten Years: Shawdowlands (BBC Movie) ??????????
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C.S. Lewis: Making Pictures

To forbid the making of pictures about God would be to forbid thinking a about God at all, for man is so made that he has no way to think except in pictures. Dorothy Sayers

". . . When [people] try to get rid of man-like, or, as they are called, 'anthropomorphic,' images, they merely succeed in substituting images of some other kinds. 'I don't believe in a personal God,' says one, 'but I do believe in a great spiritual force.' What he has not noticed is that the word 'force' has let in all sorts of images about winds and tides and electricity and gravitation. 'I don't believe in a personal God,' says another, 'but I do believe we are all parts of one great Being which moves and works through us all' -not noticing that he has merely exchanged the image of a fatherly and royal-looking man for the image of some widely extended gas or fluid. A girl I knew was brought up by 'higher thinking' parents to regard God as perfect 'substance.' In later life she realized that this had actually led her to think of Him as something like a vast tapioca pudding. (To make matters worse, she disliked tapioca.) We may feel ourselves quite safe from this degree of absurdity but we are mistaken. If a man watches his own mind, I believe he will find that what profess to be specially advanced or philosophic conceptions of God, are, in his thinking, always accompanied by vague images which, if inspected, would turn out to be even more absurd than the manlike images aroused by Christian theology.

Miracles

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Myth

  • Lewis believed that Christian truth must be defended with sound logic and philosophy. But this apologetic needed to be explicated in order that its meaning could be made clear to its hearers. That is why he felt this could best be accomplished through the proper use of myths. By myth he did not mean legends and fairy tales but a real unfocused gleam of truth falling on human imagination.
  • In his classic Experiment in Criticism, a book on how to read a book, Lewis lays out six characteristics of literature that that make a myth:
    • 1. it is extra-literary , or independent of the form of the words used;
    • 2. the pleasure of myth depends hardly at all on such unusual narrative attractions as suspense or surprise ;
    • 3. our sympathy with the character is minimal;
    • 4. myth is always fantastic and deals with impossibles and preternaturals ;
    • 5. though the experience may be sad or joyful , it always is grave and never comic;
    • 6. the experience is not only grave but awe inspiring. We feel it to be numinous. It is as if something of great moment has been communicated to us.
    • From a theological perspective Lewis saw true myths as memories or echoes of God Himself and He left us with human imagination as their receptor. He explained this relationship in describing how he came to write the Narnia Chronicles, as a mythological expression of the Gospel story:
    • "It was he [the imaginative man] who, after my conversion, led me to embody my religious belief in symbolical or mythopoeic form, ranging from Screwtape to a kind of theological science fiction. And it was of course he who has brought me, in the last few years, to write the series of Narnian stories for children; not asking what children want and then endeavoring to adapt myself (this was not needed) but because the fairy tale was the genre best fitted for what I wanted to say."
    • Lewis undertook the daunting task of awakening modernity's deadened imagination to the eternal realities by telling stories of worlds of fixed moral order, serenity and blissfulness. He had help from a few friends in understanding imagination as a vehicle to convey the Reality who stands behind and above the visible world.
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Lewis’s Concept of Nature: Spoiled Goodness

  • Lewis’s Response to Nature:
  • 1 – Romantic Appreciation and Idealization
  • 2 – Acceptance of the Supernatural
    • The Experience with the supernatural
    • Lucy’s tale - several hours in Narnia - less than a minute
  • 3 – Moral Awareness of the force of evil in nature and the temporal
  • transient quality of our world.
    • Nature is more than a background setting for the action of his characters
      • “Either there is significance in the whole process of things as well as in human activities, or there is no significance in human activity itself.” C.S. Lewis, The Personal Heresy, 1939.
  • Fresh exuberance of nature (This is no thaw; this is spring) - Glimpses of Redeemed Creation
  • Creation, Fall, Redemption
  • “They say Aslan is on the Move - Perhaps has already landed”
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Lewis’s Concept of God: The Coming of the Lion

"Do not weep. Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David,

has prevailed.Rev. 5:5

“’They say Aslan is on the move – perhaps has already landed’

And now a very curious thing happened. None of the children knew who Aslan was any more than you do; but the moment the Beaver had spoken these words everyone felt quite different. Perhaps it has sometimes happened to you in a dream that someone says something which you don’t understand but in the dream it feels as if it had some enormous meaning – either a terrifying one which turns the whole dream into a nightmare or else a lovely meaning too lovely to put into words, which makes the dream so beautiful that you remember it all your life and are always wishing you could get into that dream again. It was like that now. At the name of Aslan each one of the children felt something jump inside. Edmund felt a sensation of mysterious horror. Peter felt suddenly brave and adventurous. Susan felt as if some delicious smell or some delightful strain of music had just floated by her. And Lucy got the feeling you have when you wake up in the morning and and realize that its the beginning of the holidays or the beginning of summer.”

The LWW

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Lewis’s Concept of Humanity: Possible Gods and Goddesses

It is a serious thing to live in a society of possible gods and goddesses, to remember that the dullest and most uninteresting person you talk to may one day be a creature which, if you saw it now, you would be strongly tempted to worship, or else a horror and a corruption such as you now meet, if at all, only in a nightmare. All day long we are, in some degree, helping each other to one or other of these destinations. It is in the light of these overwhelming possibilities, it is with the awe and the circumspection proper to them, that we should conduct all our dealings with one another, all friendships, all loves, all play, all politics. There are noordinarypeople. You have never talked to a mere mortal. Nations, cultures, arts, civilization--these are mortal, and their life is to ours as the life of a gnat. But it is immortals whom we joke with, work with, marry, snub, and exploit--immortal horrors or everlasting splendors.

The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses

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Narnia

  • Many Christian doctrines (Classical Christianity)
    • Doctrines fall into three categories:
    • Nature, God, Man’s Relationship to Nature, God and his fellow man.
  • Animal-Land (7-8 years old)
  • The Narnia Series: Different from other Stories - Magic, Fantasy … the Glimpsing of Other-Worlds
  • Stories
    • -(1-4)London Children being evacuated to the country during WW II. Children Transported from this world into a world faire-tale creatures belonging to a great lion (four books on this scheme). The Lion The Witch and the Wardrobe,
    • - (5)The tale of two native children of that world who are also chosen by the great lion to serve the land of Narnia and to know him in a special way.
    • - (6)The beginning of the world of Narnia - the intrusion of two Victorian children into the newborn world begins the complications which give rise to all the later adventures. (The Magician’s Nephew)
    • -(7)The end of Narnia (Last Battle)
  • Each story complete in itself - George MacDonald style.
  • Fragmented - Strong unity of philosophy and consistency of doctrine.
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Narnia:

Myth Made Truth:

The Origins of the Chronicles of Narnia

In the process of writing the Chronicles of Narnia, C.S. Lewis gradually expanded the breadth and scope of his literary ambitions. What was foreseen from the outset as a collection of stories for children developed into a complex depiction of an entire moral universe. As the seven books progress, Lewis unfolds the whole Divine plan for this universe from its creation to its apocalypse. However, the uniqueness of Lewis' literary achievement stems from the fact that Lewis manages to do two things at once. That is, he remains faithful to his original intention to write stories for children while adding in subtle moral and spiritual complexities. Thus, the Chronicles of Narnia are a series of books that can delight the senses as they challenge and stir the soul.

(Mark Bane)

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Moral education. . . does not look much like teaching. One cannot have classes in it. It involves the inculcation of proper emotional responses and is as much a "knowing how" as a " knowing that." . . . The picture we get when we think of “knowing how" is the apprentice working with the master. And the inculcation of right emotional responses will take place only if the youth has around him examples of men and women for whom such responses have become natural.

Lewis, like Aristotle, believes that moral principles are learned indirectly from others around us, who serve as exemplars. . . . This is also the clue to understanding the place of the Chronicles of Narnia within Lewis's thought. They are not just good stories. Neither are they primarily Christian allegories (in fact, they are not allegories at all). Rather, they serve to enhance moral -education, to build character. . . . To overlook the function of the Chronicles of Narnia in communicating images of proper emotional responses is to miss their connection to Lewis’s moral thought.

Gilbert Meilaender:

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THE KINGDOM OF NARNIA

LEWIS RIGOROUSLY DEFENDS THE FAIRY TALE AGAINST ANY who claim that it gives a false conception of life. The fact is, says he, that this is the direct opposite of the truth and it is the so-called realistic stories which deceive children. The fairy tale, like the myth, on the one hand arouses longing for more ideal worlds and on the other gives the real world a new dimension of depth. The boy "does not despise real woods because he has read of enchanted woods: the reading makes all real woods a little more enchanted." The child reading the fairy tale is delighted simply in desiring, while the child reading a "realistic" story may establish the success of its hero as a standard for himself and, when he cannot have the same success, may suffer bitter disappointment.

It seems obvious that two purposes guided Lewis in the writing of his Narnia stories. One was to tell a good tale, the other to suggest analogies - I do not think Lewis would wish them called allegories - of the Christian scheme of things. These books have been among Lewis's most widely read. Charles Some think that they mark "the greatest addition to the imperishable deposit of children's literature since the Jungle Books. Chad Walsh says that he himself felt the fairy-tale atmosphere was curiously cut-and-dried but that two of his daughters, aged six and eight, re-educated him after he had read them the first chapter and they required two chapters a night thereafter, some times followed by tears when a third chapter was not forth-coming.

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The Magician's Nephew

  • Digory Kirke (12) and Polly Plumber (11) are children living in London. After Digory moves in with his Aunt Letty and crazy Uncle Andrew, he meets Polly and they do some exploring. They make their way to Narnia, the new world created by the Great Lion, Aslan. They must save it from the evil witch, Jadis. The book is usually numbered either first or sixth, but some people recommend reading it second
  • The Main Theme: Weakness to Power
  • Key Symbol: Fruit of the Tree of Life
  • The Magician’s Nephew and The Bible
  • (Colossians 1:9-17) – Christ created and redeemed the world.
  • Paul prays for power in their lives.
  • When and Where in The Magician’s Nephew
    • Chapter 1,2 – London
    • Chapters 3,4,5 – Trip to Charn
    • Chapters 6,7,8 – London
    • Chapters 9,10,11 – Narnia
    • Chapters 12, 13 – Western Wild
    • Chapters 14 – Narnia
    • Chapters 15 – London

Stars themselves. ..singing (99. 88) Job 38:7

It laughed for joy (101, 90) Psalms 19:5

Land bubbling like water ( 113, 100-101) Gen. 1: 24

For out of them you were taken (118, 105) Genesis 3:19

Adam's race has done the harm (136, 121) I Corinthians 15:21 Name all these creatures (138, 123) Genesis 2:19

My son, my son (142, 127) II Sam 18:33

Well done (166, 149) Matthew 25:21

Oh, Adam's sons. ..good (171, 153 ) Luke 19:42

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The Magician's Nephew

To discover the very beginnings of Narnia one should read The Magician's Nephew, actually the sixth book in the series of seven. The book might well be called The Beginnings of Narnia, or How the Wardrobe Gained Its Magic. Digory Kirke was an old white-haired man when Peter and his friends first discovered that the wardrobe was a doorway into Narnia, yet the story really began when Digory was a boy in London and one morning stuck his head over the garden wall and found Polly Plummer looking up at him. Digory and his invalid mother were living with his uncle and aunt Ketterley while his father was away in India.'

Before the adventure was over they were to plant in Digory's yard the seeds of an apple brought back from Narnia, and long afterwards the wood from that same tree was to be used in making the magical wardrobe.

The original adventure started when Digory and Polly accidentally discovered that Digory's queer and unpleasant uncle was a dabbler in magic. This uncle's godmother, one of the last mortals on earth to possess any fairy blood, just before her death had given him a box containing dust from the lost island of Atlantis. She warned him as she was dying to burn the box. Instead he experimented with its contents and was able to make some little colored rings, yellow and green, with which he caused guinea pigs to disappear. The uncle was too cowardly to become his own subject but when Polly touched one of the yellow rings she disappeared. Digory, thoroughly disgusted with his uncle, took two of the green rings into his pocket and put a yellow one on his finger. Immediately he was transported to the Wood between the Worlds, where he found Polly. They discovered that by putting on the yellow rings and jumping into one of many' small lakes in the Wood they could go into other worlds.

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One they went to was called Charn, a world almost dead, and when Digory struck a bell he could not resist, Jadis, a powerful, and haughty queen, came to life; and told them how by speaking the Deplorable Word she had destroyed her rival sister and all of Charn. When Jadis discovered the children were from a newer world, she coveted it for herself:, Scared, the children put their hands on the magic rings to return to London., but they found Queen Jadis in London with them, for she had touched them at the last moment. There Jadis went out in a hansom cab with Uncle Andrew and caused a riot. She had wrenched off an iron guy from a light pole and was flailing policemen with it when Digory and Polly got hold of her and touched their yellow rings:' Immediately they were back in the Wood between the Worlds. They quickly jumped into one of the pools of water and went into a midnight world, the world of Nothing. To their consternation, they found they had brought along not only Jadis but the cab driver, Uncle Andrew, and the cabby's horse.

In this world of Nothing they saw Narnia created by a great Lion, AsIan. All, including the horse, were delighted except Uncle Andrew and Jadis. The latter flung her iron guy at the Lion. It stuck in the ground, and because Aslan’s great creativity was at work making grass, trees, and all sorts of beings, the iron grew into a lamp post just like the one in London. The whole world seemed filled with right magic as Aslan worked. Jadis ran away and Uncle Andrew hid himself. ¥-an created fauns, satyrs, dwarfs, and talking beasts. Even the cabby horse was turned into a talking beast.

Before this new world was five hours old evil had entered into it. Uncle Andrew, refusing to believe that Aslan was anything more than a beast, was unable to hear Asian's beautiful song as he created things and could not even hear the animals talk and laugh. But Jadis was even a greater evil in Narnia. Digory had brought the evil in, said AsIan to the beasts, but he promised to see that the worst fell upon himself.

Aslan told the cabby - and also his wife Helen, who had been brought to Narnia by Aslan's magic - that they were to be the first king and queen of the land and were to name and rule all the creatures. Also that their children would be kings of Narnia and of Archenland. Then Aslan, that Digory might help to undo the wrong he had done in bringing in evil sent him far away into the mountains of the Western Wild to a beautiful valleywhere in a garden on a hilltop grew an apple tree.

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To carry Digory and Polly to this spot the cabby horse was turned into a great flying Pegasus. Digory was to bring back an apple the seed of which, when planted by AsIan, would produce a tree to protect Narnia from Jadis for many years.

At the end of their aerial journey they found the garden and a tree loaded with beautiful fruit. But Digory also discovered Jadis in the garden, eating an apple. Telling him how delicious it was and otherwise enticing him, she almost persuaded him to eat, yet Digory remembered his instructions and was able to return to Aslan with a perfect apple. From its seed a new tree sprang up quickly, and Aslan gave Digory an apple from it to carry back to heal his sick mother. From the golden leaves of another tree the dwarfs fashioned crowns for the new king and queen of Narnia, and AsIan himself, with all the creatures standing at attention, established King Frank and Queen Helen as the first rulers of Narnia.

After a wonderful farewell and parting advice from Aslan about evils that would come on Narnia, they were transported back to their own world. The apple which Digory had brought along cured his mother.. Digory buried the core of it in his back yard, and, to prevent Digory’s uncle from further mischief with his magical rings, he ad Polly buried them near the apple seeds. This was the tree which Digory much later fashioned into a wardrobe. He did not know that it retained some of its Narnian magic, for that was a discovery to be made a long time afterwards by" Peter, .Edmund, Susan, and Lucy.

Back in Narnia King Frank and Queen Helen ruled. Their second son became King of Archenland. The boys married nymphs and the girls wood-gods and river-gods. The lamp-post which had grown up in Narnia shone always in the Narnian forest and the place where it stood came to be known as Lantern Waste. '"

 Narnia was quite a different world from ours. This is the manner in which it was created. As Digory and the others stood in the dark and empty land of Nothing, they heard a far-off song that appeared to come from every direction at once, even from the very earth beneath their feet. Though it was hardly a tune at all, it was almost too beautiful to bear. Suddenly the voice of AsIan, for it was he who began it all, was joined by many other voices. At the same time the black sky above was filled with blazing stars which seemed to join their own voices to the swelling music. Then in the east, to the sound of still more glorious music, the sun rose splendidly and revealed fresh and colorful valleys and rivers and mountains. Yet it revealed no trees nor even a blade of grass.

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The Lion now sang a new song that was softer and more lilting than before, and as he paced to and fro the ground was covered with grass sprinkled with daisies and buttercups. It was then that Jadis, fearful of the Lion's approach, flung her iron guy from the London light pole straight at him. The object struck AsIan between the eyes and fell into the grass. It began to grow like the other new creations. After this AsIan sang a wilder tune and the land in front of him began to take on queer humps of many different sizes and out of these humps burst all sorts of animals, stags, panthers, dogs, frogs, and elephants. Hundreds of birds came out of the trees, and bees and butterflies soon filled the air and got busy. To Aslan's music were soon added hundreds of other sounds from the teeming land.

Then AsIan touched some pairs of animals and called them aside into a circle. They stood in perfect silence with their eyes upon him, and it was apparent that something marvelous was about to happen. As AsIan stared at them they turned their heads as if to understand. Yet Asian did not speak, but only breathed out a long, warm breath. Then from far overhead the stars began to sing and there came a blinding flash of light which made the children's bodies tingle. Asian in a deep, wild voice then sang, "Narnia, Narnia, Narnia, awake.. Love. . Think. Speak. Be walking frees. Be talking beasts. Be divine waters.“

This was the beginning of Narnia. It was all quite" perfect, except that the powerful vengeful Jadis, brought to life by. Digory's sinful curiosity, had gone off to the edge of Narnia and would remain. Yet she could not return as long as the apple tree flourished.

Narnia was a small land compared to some of those near it. Rabadash reminded the Tisroc that Narnia was not one-fourth the size of the smallest of his provinces in Calormen, and even Edmund confessed that Narnia might be overcome easily by its more powerful enemies roundabout. It was a land of heather and thyme and of sweet air, of rivers and plashing glens, of mossy caves and great forests filled with the noise of dwarfs' smithies. It was a land of freedom, where maidens were never forced to marry against their will, and where even a mouse like Reepicheep had a great sense of honor and chivalry.

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Just to the south of Narnia, and connected with it by a pass through high mountains, lay Archenland, a country ruled over by King Lune from his castle at Anvard and later by his son Ram the great, the most famous of all Archenland kings. Farther south, across a great desert, was the large and cruel country of Calormen. Its dark-skinned and proud people always dreamed of capturing both Narnia and Archenland. The capital of Calormen was the great city of Tashbaan, and the country had many provinces.

To the west of Narnia lay a wild land of big mountains covered with dark forests or else with snow and glaciers. It was called the Western Wild. A river rushing down from it created a vast and thundering waterfall, underneath which was Caldron Pool, and out of this flowed the River of Narnia which ran all the way across to the sea. On the east side of the Western Wild was Lantern Waste, where the children first entered Narnia and where Jadis, the White Witch, had her kingdom.

The capital of Narnia was Cair Paravel, located in a beautiful spot on the east coast near the River of Narnia, and this was where Aslan established Peter, Edmund, Susan and Lucy as kings and queens of Narnia and where they reigned for many years. A little to tenor of Cair Paravel lived the marsh-wiggles, and above them one crossed the River Shribble and came to a desolate moorland called Ettinsmore which led, finally, to mountainous country and the giants' stronghold of Harfang. Nearby were the ruins of a great city underneath which once lay the kingdom of the Green Witch and her unwilling vassals. Here also in a deep cave had slept Father Time until AsIan awakened him to sound his final horn over Narnia.

On the east of Narnia lay the ocean, over which, if one were courageous enough, he could sail to alma, Terebinthia, the Seven Islands, the Lone Islands, Dragon Island, Deathwater Island, Darkness Island, and World's End Island to the Silver Sea and the very end of the world, and there he could look beyond the sun itself into the high mountains of Aslan's own country.

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In olden times there were many chinks or chasms between the world and Narnia, but they had grown rarer. One of the last was a magical cave on an island in the South Sea, upon which a few men and women had once accidentally blundered and discovered the Land of Telmar, which was then unpeopled. They lived there for generations and became a proud, fierce nation. Finally Telmar suffered a great famine and its people, led by King Caspian the First, went a long distance to the Western Mountains of Narnia, crossed them, and conquered Narnia which was then in some disorder. It was not then a land of men at all but of talking beasts, walking trees, fauns, dwarfs, and giants. Actually it was the Telmarines who silenced the beasts and trees and fountains and killed and drove away dwarfs and fauns, and even tried to cover up the very memory of such things.

These are the places in which the events of the Narnian stories take place.

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The Magician's Nephew

The Lion, whose eyes never blinked, stared at the animals as hard as if he was going to burn them up with his mere stare. And gradually a change came over them. The smaller ones - the rabbits, moles, and such-like - grew a good deal larger. The very big ones - you noticed it most with the elephants - grew a little smaller. Many animals sat p on their hind legs. Most put their heads on one side as if they were trying very hard to understand. The Lion opened his mouth, but no sound came from it; he was breathing out, a long, warm breath; it seemed to sway all the beasts as the wind sways a line of trees. Far overhead from beyond the veil of blue sky which hid them the stars sang again; a pure, cold, difficult music. Then there came a swift flash like fire (but it burnt nobody) either from the sky or from the Lion itself, and every drop of blood tingled in the children's bodies, and the deepest, wildest voice they had ever heard was saying: "Narnia, Narnia, Narnia, awake. Love. Think. Speak. Be walking trees. Be talking beasts. Be divine waters."

(The founding of Narnia)

Uncle Andrew

The Tree with Silver Apples

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The Magician's Nephew

"Child," he (Aslan) replied, "that is why all the rest are now a horror to her. That is what happens to those who pluck and eat fruits at the wrong time and in the wrong way. The fruit is good, but they loath it ever after."

"Oh I see," said Polly. "And I suppose because she took it in the wrong way it won't work for her. I mean it won't make her always young and all that?"

"Alas," said Aslan, shaking his head. "It will. Things always work according to their nature. She has won her heart's desire; she has un-wearing strength and endless days like a goddess. But length of days with an evil heart is only length of misery and already she begins to know it. All get what they want; they do not always like it."

(The Planting of the Tree)

The Wood Between the Worlds

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The Magician's Nephew

They looked and saw a little hollow in the grass, with a grassy bottom, warm and dry."When you were last here," said Aslan, "that hollow was a pool, and when you jumped into it you came to the world where a dying sun shone over the ruins of Charn. There is no pool now. That world is ended, as if it had never been. Let the race of Adam and Eve take warning."

"Yes, Aslan," said both the children. But Polly added, "But we're not quite as bad as that world, are we, Aslan?"

"Not yet, Daughter of Eve," he said. "Not yet. But you are growing more like it. It is not certain that some wicked one of your race will not find out a secret as evil as the Deplorable Word and use it to destroy all living things. And soon, very soon, before you are an old man and an old woman, great nations in your world will be ruled by tyrants who care no more for joy and justice and mercy than the Empress Jadis. Let your world beware. That is the warning."

(The End of This Story and the Beginning of All The Others)

Fledge, Polly and Digory

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WHERE IT ALL BEGAN: C.S. Lewis played in this wardrobe as a child.

  • The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe
  • The Main Theme: Frozen to Thawed – Winter to Spring
  • Key Symbol: The Stone Table
  • Favorite Quotes
  • LWW and the Bible (see next page)
  • When and Where in LWW
    • 1. Lucy accidentally found herself in Narnia
    • 2. After a visit with Mr. Tumnus the Faun, Lucy returned to England
    • 3. Edmund accidentally found himself in Narnia and met the Queen of Narnia
    • 4. Edmund became addicted to magic candy (Turkish Delight)
    • 5. Peter and Susan assumed that Lucy’s Narnia was unreal
    • 6. All four children found themselves in Narnia
    • 7. The four learned about Narnia while visiting Mr. And Mrs. Beaver
    • 8. Edmund sneaked away to betray the others to the White Witch
    • 9. Edmund made his way to the Witch’s castle and became captive there
    • 10. As the children and the Beavers fled, Father Christmas arrived with gifts
    • 11. The Witch discover that her perpetual winter was beginning to thaw
    • 12. Aslan appeared, greeted his friend ands knighted Peter
    • 13. The Witch demand her right to kill Edmund
    • 14. Aslan gave himself to the Witch to die in Edmund’s place
    • 15. Aslan came back to life
    • 16. Aslan revived all victims of the Witch who had turned to statues
    • 17. The children ruled Narnia for many happy years before returning to England

Prof. Digory

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The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe and The Bible

Daughter of Eve (9,8) Romans 5:12

I should live to see this day (68, 58) Luke 2:30

Wrong will be right when. ..(74, 64) Mat. 12:18-20

At the sound of his roar. ..(74, 64 ) Hosea 11:10-11

Sorrows will be no more (74,64) Isaiah 65:19

When Adam's flesh and Adam's bone (76, 65 ) Genesis 2:23

They are tools, not toys ( 104, 87 ) Eph. 6:11-17

No need to talk about what is past ( 136, I 12) Is. 65:16

Deep Magic ( 138, I 14) I Corinthians 2:5-8

He just went on looking at Asian (138, 114) Hebrews 12:2

I should be glad of company tonight (147, 121 ) Matthew 26:38

I am sad and lonely ( 147, 121 ) Matthew 26:38

Let him first be shaved (150,124) Matthew 27:28

Jeering at him saying ( 150, 124 ) Matthew 27:29

In that knowledge, despair and die (152,126) Matthew 27:46

Warmth of his breath. ..came all over her ( 159, 132 ) John 20:22

A magic deeper still ( 159, 132 ) I Corinthians 2:7-8

Asian provided food (178, 147) John 6:1-14

He has other countries to attend to (180, 149) John 10:16

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The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe

The first of the adventures, after the creation of Narnia by Asian, began about sixty years later when the four Pevensie children, Peter, Edmund, Susan, and Lucy, left London because of air-raids during the war and went to stay with old Professor Kirke in his great country mansion. One day Lucy, while playing in an old wardrobe, accidentally discovered it was a doorway - one never reached Narnia twice in the same way – to Narnia and eventually all four of the children got in. Just inside was the lamp-post of Jadis the White Witch. She was now queen of Narnia, having slain most of its inhabitants and turned its weather to perpetual winter yet with never any Christmas.

Jadis had overcome most of Narnia and had as her henchmen a vast number of giants, werewolves, …. bull-headed men, evil dwarfs. and spirits of evil trees and poisonous plants_ Even though Jadis magically turned all her enemies to stone, there were many loyal Narnian talking beasts hidden away and eager for her downfall. One of these was Tumnus the Faun, whose friendship with Lucy brought on Jadis's wrath and lined up the forces of good and evil. Mr. and Mrs. Beaver led the children southwards toward the Stone Table. They were followed by the furious Jadis, who had learned of Asian's return to Narnia.

In the south, where once again spring had returned, Asian took Peter to a high hill and showed him in the distance on a peninsula jutting into the sea the castle of Cair Paravel where he and the other children were to reign. AsIan also predicted the death of Jadis. Meanwhile she and her cohorts arrived at the Stone Table and she was about to kill Edmund,..now her prisoner, with her stone knife when Aslan volunteered to die in his place and thus appease the Deep Magic involved. That night Lucy and Susan met AsIan near the Stone Table, wept bitterly at the sadness in his countenance, and later horrifiedly saw Aslan bound by his enemies, spit upon, jeered at, and finally slain by the White Witch. At sunrise the Stone Table itself split into two great pieces. Later Lucy and Susan returned sorrowfully to the dead body of their leader.

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The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe

Yet with the coming of daylight Lucy and Susan were overjoyed to hear a great voice behind their backs and turning saw Aslan shining in the early sunrise. He was larger and more more glorious than ever. When they inquired how he could be alive again, he told them it was a very Deep Magic. After a happy romp, Aslan took the two girls upon his back and traveled like the wind to the White Witch’s castle in the West. There he brought all the stone animals back to life and laid her castle waste. Hurrying back eastward, they found peter and his friends in deadly combat with the White Witch’ and her followers. The result was a complete victory, Aslan himself joining the battle and slaying the White Witch herself.

Then Aslan and all the loyal inhabitants of Narnia took the children to Cair Paravel and crowned them, and they grew up to be as dignified kings and queens as one could imagine. Long afterwards while one day in the west hunting the White Stag, who could give you wishes if you caught him, they came upon the lamp-post in the Lantern Waste. At first they did not recognize it. Later they became convinced that if they passed the post they would either find strange new adventures or else some great change in their fortunes. They passed through the thicket in which the post was located and the next moment were children again among the clothes hung in the wardrobe of the old professor's mansion. To their amazement they found that though they had been in Narnia a great many years no earth time at all ‘had elapsed. Old Professor Kirke comforted. them by saying, “Once a King in Narnia, always a King in Narnia” and assuring them that sooner or later they would again discover an entrance to that marvelous country.

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The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe

"Have you forgotten the Deep Magic?" asked the Witch.

"Let us say I have forgotten it," answered Aslan gravely. "Tell us of this Deep Magic."

"Tell you?" said the Witch, her voice growing suddenly shriller. "Tell you what is written on that very Table of Stone which stands behind us? Tell you what is written in letters deep as a spear is long on the fire-stones on the Secret Hill? Tell you what is engraved on the scepter of the Emperor-beyond the sea? You at least know the Magic which the Emperor put into Narnia at the very beginning. You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey and that for every treachery I have a right to a kill."

"Oh," said Mr. Beaver. "So that's how you came to imagine yourself a queen -- because you were the Emperor's hangman. I see."

(Deep Magic from The Dawn of Time)

Lucy and Mr. Tumnus

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The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe

"Oh, you're real, you're real! Oh, Aslan!" cried Lucy, and both girls flung themselves upon him and covered him with kisses.

"But what does it all mean?" asked Susan when they were somewhat calmer.

"It means, said Aslan, that though the Witch knew the Deep Magic, there is a magic deeper still which she did not know. Her knowledge goes back only to the dawn of time. But if she could have looked a little further back, into the stillness and the darkness before Time dawned, she would have read there a different incantation. She would have known that when a willing victim who has committed no treachery was killed in a traitor's stead, the Table would crack and Death itself would start working backward."

(Deeper Magic From Before The Dawn of Time)

"Of course," said Aslan. "And now! Those who can't keep up - that is, children, dwarfs, and small animals - must ride on the backs of those who can - that is, lions, centaurs, unicorns, horses, giants and eagles. Those who are good with their noses must come in the front with us lions to smell out where the battle is. Look lively and sort yourselves."

And with a great deal of bustle and cheering they did. The most pleased of the lot was the other lion who kept running about everywhere pretending to be very busy but really in order to say to everyone he met, "Did you hear what he said? Us Lions. That meant him and me. Us Lions. That's what I like about Aslan. No side, no stand-off-ishness. Us Lions. That meant him and me." At least he went on saying this till Aslan had loaded him up with three dwarfs, one dryad, two rabbits, and a hedgehog. That steadied him a bit."

(What Happened About The Statues)

And I saw a strong angel, who shouted in a loud voice: "Who is worthy to break the seals on this scroll and unroll it?" But no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll and read it. Then I wept because no one could be found who was worthy to open the scroll and read it. But one of the twenty-four elders said to me, "Stop weeping! Look, the LION of the tribe of Judah, the heir to David's throne has conquered. He is worthy to open the scroll and break the seven seals." Rev 5:2-5

And Aslan stood up and as he opened his mouth to roar his face became so terrible that they did not dare to look at it. And they saw all the trees in front of him bend before the blast of his roaring as the grass bends in a meadow before the wind.

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

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The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe

"Is--is he a man?" asked Lucy.

"Aslan a man!" said Mr. Beaver sternly. "Certainly not. I tell you he is the King of the wood and the son of the great Emperor-Beyond-the-Sea. Don't you know who is the King of Beasts? Aslan is a lion--the Lion, the great Lion."

"Ooh!" said Susan, "I'd thought he was a man. Is he--quite safe? I shall feel rather nervous about meeting a lion."

"That you will, dearie, and no mistake,' said Mrs. Beaver, 'if there's anyone who can appear before Aslan without their knees knocking, they're either braver than most or else just silly."

"Then he isn't safe?" said Lucy.

"Safe?" said Mr. Beaver. "Don't you hear what Mrs. Beaver tells you? Who said anything about safe? 'Course he isn't safe. But he's good. He's the King I tell you."

"I'm longing to see him," said Peter, "even if I do feel frightened when it comes to the point.“

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Christian Creed in Narnian terms:

I believe in the Emperor-beyond-the-Sea who has put within time the Deep Magic, and, before all time, the Deeper Magic.

I believe in his Son Asian who sang into being all the worlds and all that they contain: Talking Beasts and humans, dumb animals and shining spirits. And I believe that Asian was a true beast, the king of beasts, a Lion; that for Edmund, a traitor because of his desire for Turkish Delight, he gave himself" into the power of the White Witch, who satisfied the requirements of the Deep Magic by killing him most horribly. At the dawn following that darkest, coldest night, he was restored to full life by the Deeper Magic, cracking the Stone Table and, from that moment, setting death to work backwards. He exulted in his new life and went off to rescue all those who had been turned into stone by the Witch’s want and to deliver the whole land from everlasting winter. He will be behind all the stories of our lives; and, when it is time, he will appear again in our world to wind it up, calling all of his creatures whose hearts' desire it is to live "farther in and farther up" in his country which contains all real countries.

I believe that upon us all falls the breath of Asian and that ours are the sweet waters of the Last Sea which enable us to look steadily at the sun. I believe that all who have thrilled or will thrill at the sound of Asian's name are now our fellow voyagers and our fellow kings and queens; that all of us can be for ever free of our dragonish thoughts and actions; and that one day we will pass through the door of death into "Chapter One of the Great Story, which no one on earth has read; which goes on for ever; in which every chapter is better than the one before.” (Paul Ford)

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The Horse and His Boy

Shasta escapes from the land of Calormen with a Narnian warhorse, Bree. Along with Aravis and her horse. They uncover a Calormene plot to conquer Narnia and must find a way to save Narnia and its people.

The Main Theme: Slavery to Freedom

Key Symbol: Living Water

Favorite Quotes

The Horse and His Boy and the Bible:

Zechariah 1:7-17, 3, 4:6, 6:1-8, 7:8-10,

9:9, 9:12, 10:3-6, 13:1, 14:8, 14:20

Isaiah58:8-11; John 4:14

Not the breath of a ghost ( I 57 , 140) Luke 24;39

Tell me your Sorrows (157,140) I Peter 5:7

Joy shall be yours ( 193, 172 ) Mat. 25:21

Touch me (193,172) John 20:27

AsIan was among them (208, 186 ) John 20:19

Not a Donkey! (210,189 ) Daniel 4:24-33

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The Horse and His Boy

At that moment everyone's feelings were completely altered by a sound from behind. ... It was the same snarling roar [Shasta] had heard that moonlit night when they first met Aravis and Hwin. Bree knew it too. His eyes gleamed red and his ears lay flat back on his skull. And Bree now discovered that he had not really been going as fast - not quite as fast - as he could. Shasta felt the change at once. Now they were really going all out.

Aslan, speaking to Shasta: "I was the lion who forced you to join with Aravis. I was the cat who comforted you among the houses of the dead. I was the lion who drove the jackals from you while you slept. I was the lion who gave the Horses the new strength of fear for the last mile so that you should reach King Lune in time. And I was the lion you do not remember who pushed the boat in which you lay, a child near death, so that it came to shore where a man sat, wakeful at midnight to receive you."

Shasta: "Then it was you who wounded Aravis?" Aslan: "It was I." Shasta: "But what for?" Aslan: "Child, I am telling you your story, not hers. I tell no-one any story but his own."

Corin: "Hurrah! Hurrah! I shan't have to be King... I'll always be a prince. It's princes have all the fun." King Lune: "And that's truer than thy brother knows, Cor. For this is what it means to be a king: to be first in every desperate attack and last in every desperate retreat, and when there's hunger in the land (as must be now and then in bad years) to wear finer clothes and laugh louder over a scantier meal than any man in your land."

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Prince Caspian

  • Troubled times have come to Narnia as it is gripped by civil war. Prince Caspian is forced to blow The Great Horn of Narnia, summoning the help of past heroes, Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy. Now they must overthrow Caspian's uncle, King Miraz, to restore peace to Narnia. Prince Caspian emphasizes education more than of the other Chronicles.
  • The Main Theme: Fasting to Feasting
  • Key Symbol: A Door in the Air
  • Favorite Quotes
  • Prince Caspian and the Bible: Psalm 148
  • When, Where and How Long
    • 1. In the LWW Peter was thirteen, Susan was twelve, Edmund was ten and Lucy eight.
    • 2. One year has passed in England and it is 1941 there.
    • 3. In Narnia 1303 years have passed while one year passed England
  • How Long
    • 1. Chapters 1-3: Arrival in Narnia
    • 2. Chapters 4-7: The dwarf’s story
    • 3. Chapters 8-11: The long journey
    • 4. Chapters 12-14: Accomplishing the task
    • 5. Chapters 15: Rewards

Prince Caspian and the Bible

The People That Lived in Hiding (68, 59 ) Isaiah 9:1

Help may be even now at the door (158, 134) Mark 13:29

A few join his company (195, 166) John 6:66

Not water but richest wine(198,168) John 2:9

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Prince Caspian

"Great Scott!" said Peter. "So it was the horn - your own horn, Su - that dragged us all off that seat on the platform yesterday morning! I can hardly believe it, yet it all fits in."

"I don't know why you shouldn't believe it," said Lucy, "if you believe in magic at all. Aren't there lots of stories about magic forcing people out of one place - out of one world - into another? I mean, when a magician in The Arabian Nights calls up a Jinn, it has to come. We had to come, just like that."

"Yes," said Peter, "I suppose what makes it feel so queer is that in the stories it's always someone in our world who does the calling. One doesn't really think about where the Jinn's coming from."

"And now we know what it feels like for the Jinn," said Edmund with a chuckle. "Golly! It's a bit uncomfortable to know that we can be whistled for like that. It's worse than what Father says about living at the mercy of the telephone."

(How They Left The Island)

"Aslan," said Lucy, "you're bigger."

"That is because you are older, little one," answered he.

"Not because you are?"

"I am not. But every year you grow, you will find me bigger."

(The Return of the Lion)

"Do you mark all this well, King Caspian?"

"I do indeed, Sir," said Caspian. "I was wishing that I came of a more honorable lineage."

"You come of the Lord Adam and the Lady Eve," said Aslan. "And that is both honor enough to erect the head of the poorest beggar, and shame enough to bow the shoulders of the greatest emperor on earth. Be content."

(Aslan Makes a door in the Air)

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Prince Caspian

"I say, Peter," whispered Edmund. "Look at those carvings on the walls.

Don't they look old? And yet we're older than that. When we were last here,

they hadn't been made."

"Yes," said Peter. "That makes one think."

(Sorcery and Sudden Vengeance)

"I am confounded," said Reepicheep to Aslan. "I am completely out of countenance. I must crave your indulgence for appearing in this unseemly fashion."

"It becomes you very well, Small One," said Aslan.

"All the same," replied Reepicheep, "if anything could be done... Perhaps her Majesty?" and here he bowed to Lucy.

"But what do you want with a tail?" asked Aslan.

"Sir," said the Mouse, "I can eat and sleep and die for my King without one. But a tail is the honor and glory of a Mouse."

"I have sometimes wondered, friend," said Aslan, "whether you do not think too much about your honor."

"Highest of all High Kings," said Reepicheep, "permit me to remind you that a very small size has been bestowed on us Mice, and if we did not guard our dignity, some (who weigh worth by inches) would allow themselves very unsuitable pleasantries at our expenses. That is why I have been at some pains to make it known that no one who does not wish to feel this sword as near his heart as I can reach shall talk in my presence about Traps or Toasted Cheese or Candles: no, Sir - not the tallest fool in Narnia!" (Aslan Makes a door in the Air)

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader'

  • Lucy, Edmund, and their cousin Eustace, are magically transported onto the ship, Dawn Treader, where King Caspian is searching for the seven lost friends of his father. On the voyage, the children meet many fantastical creatures, including the great Aslan himself.
  • The Main Theme: West to East (God-ward – Gen2:8)
  • Key Symbol: A Magic Spell
  • Favorite Quotes
  • VDT and the Bible: Ezekiel 43:2-4,47:1-12
  • When, Where and Who
    • Edmund, Lucy and Eustace joined voyage
    • The storm
    • Limping east in a bad condition
    • Dragon Island
  • “Oh, Aslan, said Lucy. Will you tell us how to get
  • into your country from our world? I shall be telling you all the time, said Aslan”

VDT and the Bible

As bad as I was (91, 91) James 5: 16

Well-he knows me (92,91) I Cor. 13:12 Caspian obeyed (173,169) Ephesians 5:21

A little live coal ( 178, 173) Isaiah 6:6

Come and have breakfast (214, 208) John 21:12

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader'

  • Parts of the voyage
    • 1. The 400-league journey from Cair Paravel to the four western islands, taking 30 days
    • 2. The Lone Islands adventures at Felimath, where the voyagers were captured by slave traders, and Doorn, where they cleaned the corrupt government of Narrowhaven.
    • 3. Twelve days in a great storm followed by eights of anxiety
    • 4. A week on Dragon Island and a brief stop at Burnt Island
    • 5. Five days at sea and a deadly struggle with the Sea Serpent
    • 6. Escaping the evil spell of Deathwater Island
    • 7. The Island of the Voices and the Magic Book, where Coriakin ruled
    • 8. Ramandu’s Island, where Aslan’s table was spread with food.
    • 10. To the World’s End, where the sky joins the earth
  • Aslan appears seven times in this book
    • 1. To Eustace and transformed him
    • 2. Walked by and broke the spell of the greed at Goldwater
    • 3. Magic Book to save Lucy from temptation
    • 4. To Lucy when she made hidden things visible
    • 5. As a bright albatross Aslan led the ship from the Dark island
    • 6. The Lion’s head on the wall came to life and directed Caspian
    • 7. The Lamb became Aslan
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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader‘

At first the only people who cheered were those who had been warned by Bern's messenger and knew what was happening and wanted it to happen. But then all the children joined in because they liked a procession and had seen very few. And then all the schoolboys joined in because they also liked processions and felt that the more noise and disturbance there was the less likely they would be to have any school that morning. And then all the old women put their heads out of doors and windows and began chattering and cheering because it was a king, and what is a governor compared with that? And all the young women joined in for the same reason and also because Caspian and Drinian and the rest were so handsome. And then all the young men came to see what the young women were looking at, so that by the time Caspian reached the castle gates, nearly the whole town was shouting.

Then her face lit up till, for a moment (but of course she didn't know it), she looked almost as beautiful as that other Lucy in the picture, and she ran forward with a little cry of delight and with her arms stretched out. For what stood in the doorway was Aslan himself, The Lion, the highest of all High Kings. And he was solid and real and warm and he let her kiss him and bury herself in his shining mane. And from the low, earthquake-like sound that came from inside him, Lucy even dared to think that he was purring.

"Oh, Aslan," said she, "it was kind of you to come."

"I have been here all the time," said he, "but you have just made me visible."

"Aslan!" said Lucy almost a little reproachfully. "Don't make fun of me. As if anything I could do would make you visible!"

"It did," said Aslan. "Do you think I wouldn't obey my own rules?"

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader‘

"Secondly," said Caspian, "I want to know why you have permitted this abominable and unnatural traffic in slaves to grow up here, contrary to the ancient custom and usage of our dominions."

"Necessary, unavoidable," said his Sufficiency. "An essential part of the economic development of the islands, I assure you. Our present burst of prosperity depends on it."

"What need have you of slaves?"

"For export, your Majesty. Sell ‘em to Calormen mostly, and we have other markets. We are a great center of the trade."

"In other words," said Caspian, "you don't need them. Tell me what purpose they serve except to put money into the pockets of such as Pug?"

"Your Majesty's tender years," said Gumpas, with what was meant to be a fatherly smile, "hardly make it possible that you should understand the economic problem involved. I have statistics, I have graphs, I have--"

"Tender as my years may be," said Caspian, "I believe I understand the slave trade from within quite as well as your Sufficiency. and I do not see that it brings into the islands meat or bread or beer or wine or timber or cabbages or books or instruments of music or horses or armor or anything else worth having. But whether it does or not, it must be stopped."

(What Caspian Did There)

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader‘

"The King who owned this island," said Caspian slowly, and his face flushed as he spoke, "would soon be the richest of all Kings of the world. I claim this land forever as a Narnia possession. It shall be called Goldwater Island. And I bind all of you to secrecy. No one must know of this. Not even Drinian--on pain of death, do you hear?"

"Who are you talking to?" said Edmund. "I'm no subject of yours. If anything it's the other way round. I am one of the four ancient sovereigns of Narnia and you are under allegiance to the High King my brother."

"So it has come to that, King Edmund, has it?" said Caspian, laying his hand on his sward-hilt.

"Oh, stop it, both of you," said Lucy. "That's the worst of doing anything with boys. You're all such swaggering, bullying idiots--oooh!--" Her voice died away into a gasp. And everyone else saw what she had seen.

Across the gray hillside above them--gray, for the heather was not yet in bloom--without noise, and without looking at them, and shining as if he were in bright sunlight though the sun had in fact gone in, passed with slow pace the hugest lion that human eyes have ever seen. In describing the scene Lucy said afterward, "He was the size of an elephant," though at another time she only said, "The size of a cart-horse." But it was not the size that mattered. Nobody dared to ask what it was. They knew it was Aslan.

And nobody ever saw how or where he went. They all looked at one another like people waking from sleep.

"What were we talking about?" said Caspian. "Have I been making rather an ass of myself?"

"Sire," said Reepicheep, "this is a place with a curse on it. Let us get back on board at once. And if I might have the honor of naming this island, I should call it Deathwater."

(Two Narrow Escapes)

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader‘

..."Do not look so sad. We shall meet soon again."

"Please, Aslan," said Lucy, "what do you call soon?"

"I call all times soon," said Aslan; and instantly he was vanished away and Lucy was alone with the Magician.

(The Dufflepuds Made Happy)

"Fly! Fly! About with your ship and fly! Row, row, row for your lives away from this accursed shore. This is the Island where Dreams come true."

"That's the island I've been looking for this long time," said one of the sailors. "I reckon I'd find I was married to Nancy if we landed here."

"And I'd find Tom alive again," said another.

"Fools!" said the man, stamping his foot with rage. "That is the sort of talk that brought me here, and I'd better have been drowned or never born. Do you hear what I say? This is where dreams--dreams, do you understand--come to life, come real. Not daydreams: dreams."

There was about half a minute's silence and then, with a great clatter of armor, the whole crew were tumbling down the main hatch as quick as they could and flinging themselves on the oars to row as they had never rowed before; and Drinian was swinging round the tiller, and the boatswain was giving out the quickest stroke that had ever been heard at sea. For it had taken everyone just that half-minute to remember certain dreams they had had--dreams that make you afraid of going to sleep again--and to realize what it would mean to land on a country where dreams come true.

(The Dark Island)

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The Voyage of the 'Dawn Treader‘

"I saw them long ago," said the Old Man, "but it was from a great height. I cannot tell you such things as sailors need to know."

"Do you mean you were flying in the air?" Eustace blurted out.

"I was a long way above the air, my son," replied the Old Man. "I am Ramandu." But I see that you stare at one another and have not heard this name. And no wonder, for the days when I was a star had ceased long before any of you knew this world, and all the constellations have changed."

"Golly," said Edmund under his breath. "He's a retired star."

"Aren't you a star any longer?" asked Lucy.

"I am a star at rest, my daughter," answered Ramandu. "when I set for the last time, decrepit and old beyond all that you can reckon, I was carried to this island. I am not so old now as I was then. Every morning a bird brings me a fire-berry from the valleys in the Sun, and each fire-berry takes away a little of my age. And when I have become as young as the child that was born yesterday, then I shall take my rising again (for we are at earth's eastern rim) and once more tread the great dance."

(The Beginning of the End of the World)

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The Silver ChairKing Caspian's beloved son Prince Rilian has disappeared. Aslan sends Eustace and his school friend Jill to Narnia on a quest to search for the young prince and defeat the evil Witch

The Main Theme: Darkness to Light

Key Symbol: A Shield of Faith

Favorite Quotes

SC and the Bible:

John 8:12-32

Isaiah 57:13-16

When, Where

London in Narnia

The Silver Chair and the Bible

I have swallowed up. ..(17, I7) Psalm 2 I:9

There is no other stream ( 17 , I7 ) John 7:37-38

Do so no more (18, IS) John 8:11

Remember the signs (21, 2I ) Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Aslan will be our good Lord (168, 163 ) Romans 14:8

Commend yourself to the Lion (173, 169) Psalm 31:5

I will not always be scolding (210, 202) Psalm 103:9

A great drop of blood ( 21 2' 204 ) I John 1:7

It turned into a fine new riding crop (214, 206) Exodus 4:4

His golden back ( 2 I 5, 206 ) Exodus 33:23

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The Silver Chair

"And how shall we start?" said Scrubb.

"Well," said the Marsh-Wiggle very slowly, "all the others who ever went looking for Prince Rilian started fro the same fountain where Lord Drinian saw the lady. They went north, mostly. And as none of them ever came back, we can’t exactly say how they got on."

"We’ve got to start by finding a ruined city of giants," said Jill. "Aslan said so."

"Got to start by finding it, have we?" answered Puddleglum. "Not allowed to start by looking for it, I suppose?"

"That’s what I meant, of course," said Jill.

Puddleglum

"Don’t you lose heart, pole," said Puddleglum. "I’m coming, sure and certain. I’m not going to lose an opportunity like this. It will do me good. They all say --- I mean, the other wiggles all say -- that I’m too flighty; don’t take life seriously enough. If they’ve said it once, they’ve said it a thousand times. ‘Puddleglum,’ they’ve said, ‘you’re altogether too full of bobance and bounce and high spirits. You’ve got to learn that life isn’t all fricasseed frogs and eel pie. You want something to sober you down a bit. We’re only saying it for your own good, Puddleglum.’ That’s what they say. Now a job like this -- a journey up north just as winter’s beginning, looking for a Prince that probably isn’t there, by way of a ruined city that no one has ever seen -- will be just the thing. If that doesn’t steady a chap, I don’t know what will."

Puddleglum

Puddleglum

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The Silver Chair

It tool them some time to reach the foot of the slope and, when they did, they looked down from the top of the cliffs at a river running below them from west to east. It was walled in by precipices on the far side as well as on their own, and it was green and sunless, full of rapids and waterfalls. The roar of it shook the earth even where they stood.

"The bright side of it is," said Puddleglum, "that if we break our necks getting down the cliffs, then we’re safe from being drowned in the river."

The Wild Waste Lands of the North

"Very well. We’ll have to manage without it. But there’s one thing more I want to know. If this owls’ parliament, as you call it, is all fair and above board and means no mischief, why does it have to be so jolly secret -- meeting in a ruin in dead of night, and all that?"

"Tu-whoo! Tu-whoo!" hooted several owls. "Where should we meet? When would anyone meet except at night?"

"You see," explained Glimfeather, "most of the creatures in Narnia have such unnatural habits. They do things by day, in broad blazing sunlight (ugh!) when everyone ought to be asleep. And, as a result, at night they’re so blind and stupid that you can’t get a word out of them. So we owls have got into the habit of meting at sensible hours, on our own, when we want to talk about things."

A Parliament of Owls

"O-ho!" said the Porter. "That’s quite a different story. Come in, little people, come in. You’d best come into the lodge while I’m sending word to his Majesty." He looked at the children with curiosity. "Blue faces," he said. "I didn’t know they were that color. Don’t care about it myself. But I dare say you look quite nice to one another. Beetles fancy other beetles, they do say."

"Our faces are only blue with cold," said Jill. "We’re not this color really."

The Hill of the Strange Trenches

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The Silver Chair

"So it’s no good, Pole. I know what you were thinking because I was thinking the same. You were thinking how nice it would have been if Aslan hadn’t put the instructions on the stones of the ruined city till after we’d passed it. And then it would have been his fault, not ours. So likely, isn’t it? No. We must just own up. We’ve only four signs to go by, and we’ve muffed the first three."

The House of Harfang

Suddenly Puddleglum turned to them, and his face had gone so pale that you could see the paleness under the natural muddiness of his complexion. He said:

"Don’t eat another bite."

"What’s wrong?" asked the other tow in a whisper.

"Didn’t you hear what those giants were saying? ‘That’s a nice tender haunch of venison,’ said one of them. ‘Then that stag was a liar.’ said another. ‘Why?’ said the first one. ‘Oh,’ said the other. ‘They say that when he was caught he said, Don’t kill me, I’m tough. You won’t like me.’" For a moment Jill did not realize the full meaning of this. But she did when Scrubb’s eyes opened wide with horror and he said:

"So we’ve been eating a Talking stag."

This discovery didn’t have exactly the same effect on all of them. Jill, who was new to that world, was sorry for the poor stag and thought it rotten of the giants to have killed him. Scrubb, who had been in that world before and had at least one Talking beast as his dear friend, felt horrified; as you might feel about a murder. But Puddleglum, who was Narnian born, was sick and faint, and felt as you would feel if you found you had eaten a baby.

"We’ve brought the anger of Aslan on us," he said. "That’s what comes of not attending to the signs. We’re under a curse, I expect. If it was allowed, it would be the best thing we could do, to take these knives and drive them into our own hearts."

And gradually even Jill came to see it from his point of view. At any rate, none of them wanted any more lunch As soon as they thought it safe they crept quietly out of the hall.

Something Worth Knowing

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The Silver Chair

"One thing I’d like to know," said Puddleglum, "is whether anyone form our world--from up-a-top, I mean--has ever done this trip before?"

"Many have taken ship at the pale beaches," replied the Warden, "and--"

"Yes, I know," interrupted Puddleglum. "And few return to the sunlit lands. You needn’t say it again. You are a chap of one idea, aren’t you?"

Travels Without the Sun

"What is a lion?" asked the Witch.

"Oh, hang it all!" said Scrubb. "Don’t you know? How can we describe it to her? Have you ever seen a cat?"

"Surely," said the Queen. "I love cats."

"Well, a lion is a little bit--only a little bit, mind you--like a huge cat--with a mane. At least, it’s not like a horse’s mane. you know, it’s more like a judge’s wig. And it’s yellow. And terrifically strong."

The Witch shook her head. "I see," she said, "that we should do no better with your lion, as you call it, than we did with your sun. Well, ‘tis a pretty make-believe, though, to say truth, it would suit you all better if you were younger. And look how you can put nothing into your make-believe without coping it from the real world, this world of mine, which is the only world. But even you children are too old for such play. As for you, my lord Prince, that art a man full grown, fie upon you! Are you not ashamed of such toys? Come, all of you. Put away these childish tricks. I have work for you all in the real world. There is no Narnia, no Overworld, no sky, no sun, no Aslan. And now, to bed all. And let us begin a wiser life tomorrow. But, first, to bed; to sleep; deep sleep, soft pillows, sleep without foolish dreams."

The Queen of the Underland

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The Silver Chair

"One word, Ma’am," he said, coming back from the fire; limping, because of the pain. "One word. All you’ve been saying is quite right, I shouldn’t wonder. I’m a chap who always liked to know the worst and then put the best face I can on it. So I won’t deny any of what you said. But there’s one thing more to be said, even so. Suppose we have only dreamed, or made up, all those things--trees and grass and sun and moon and stars and Aslan himself. Suppose we have. Then all I can say is that, in that case, the made-up things seem a good deal more important than the real ones. Suppose this black pit of a kingdom of yours is the only world. Well, it strikes me as a pretty poor one. And that’s a funny thing, when you come to think of it. We’re just babies making up a game, if you’re right. But four babies playing a game can make a play-world which licks your real world hollow. That’s why I’m going to stand by the play-world. I’m on Aslan’s side even if there isn’t any Aslan to lead it. I’m going to live as like a Narnian as I can even if there isn’t any Narnia. So, thanking you kindly for our supper, if these two gentlemen and the young lady are ready, we’re leaving your court at once and setting out in the dark to spend our lives looking for Overland. Not that our lives will be very long, I should think; but that’s a small loss if the world’s as dull a place as you say."

The Queen of the Underland

King and Queen of the Giants

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The Silver Chair

"Do you know the way to those new diggings, by which the sorceress meant to lead out an army against Overland?"

"Ee-ee-ee!" squeaked Golg. "Yes, I know that terrible road. I will show you where it begins. But it is no manner of use your Honor asking me to go with you on it. I’ll die rather."

"Why?" asked Eustace anxiously. "What’s so dreadful about it?"

"Too near the top, the outside," said Golg, shuddering. "That was the worst thing the Witch did to us. We were going to be led out into the open--into the outside of the world. They say there’s no roof at all there; only a horrible, great emptiness called the sky. And the diggings have gone so far that a few strokes of the pick would bring you out to it. I wouldn’t dare to go near them."

"Hurrah!" Now you’re talking!" cried Eustace, and Jill said, "But it’s not horrid at all up there. We like it. We live there."

"I know you Overlanders live there," said Golg. "But I thought it was because you couldn’t find your way down inside. You can’t really like it--crawling about like flies on top of the world!"

The Bottom of the World

"Down there," said Golg, "I could show you real gold, real silver, real diamonds."

"Bosh!" said Jill rudely. "As if we didn’t know that we’re below the deepest mines even here."

"Yes," said Golg. "I have heard of those little scratches in the crust that you Topdwellers call mines. But that’s where you get dead gold, dead silver, dead gems. Down in Bism we have them alive and growing. There I’ll pick you bunches of rubies that you can eat and squeeze out a cupful of diamond juice. You won’t care much about fingering the cold, dead treasures of your shallow mines after you have tasted the live ones in Bism." The Bottom of the World

...After that, the Head’s friends saw that the Head was no use as a Head, so they got her made an Inspector to interfere with other Heads. And when they found she wasn’t much good even at that, they got her into Parliament where she lived happily ever after.

The Healing of Harms

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The Last BattleA false Aslan is roaming Narnia, commanding everyone to work for the cruel Calormemes. Can Eustace and Jill find the true Aslan and restore peace to the land? The last battle is the greatest of all and the final struggle between good and evil.

The Main Theme: Death to Life

Key Symbol: The Stable

Favorite Quotes

The Last Battle and the Bible:

Rev. 5:1-14

Trembled with a small earthquake (10,10) Mark 13:8

Worst thing in the world (20, 20 ) Psalms 77:10

Is not like the Aslan (25,25 ) Psalms 77:10

By whose blood (33,33 ) Ephesians I :7

Seeing is believing ( 104, 99 ) John 20:25-29

Between the paws of the true Aslan(107,101) Deuteronomy 33:27

Lovely fruit trees (135-137,127-129) Revelation 22:2

A Stable once. ..inside (140-141, 133) Luke 2:7

Well done (146,138) Matthew 25:21

Stars will fall from heaven ( 150-1 51, 142-143 ) Mark 13:25

Moon … looked red (156,148) Joel 2:31

To know more of him (162,154) Phil. 3:10

To look upon his face (162,154) Ps. 27:8

Though he should slay me (163, 155) Job 13:15

No one get hot or tired (171, 1620 Is. 40:31

One can’t feel afraid (173,164) I John 4:18

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The Last Battle

"You will go to your death, then," said Jewel.

"Do you think I care if Aslan doomes me to death?" said the King. "That would be nothing, nothing at all. Would it not be better to be dead than to have this horrible fear that Aslan has come and is not like the Aslan we have believed in and longed for? It is as if the sun rose one day and were a black sun."

"I know," said Jewel. "Or if you drank water and it were dry water. You are in the right, Sire. This is the end of all things."

(The Ape in Its Glory)

"There! You see!" said the Ape. "It's all arranged. And all for your own good. We'll be able, with the money you earn, to make Narnia a country worth living in. There'll be oranges and bananas pouring in--and roads and big cities and schools and offices and whips and muzzles and saddles and cages and kennels and prisons--Oh, everything."

"But we don't want all those things," said an old Bear. "We want to be free. And we want to hear Aslan speak himself."

"Now don't you start arguing," said the Ape, "for it's a thing I won't stand. I'm a Man: you're only a fat, stupid old Bear. What do you know about freedom? You think freedom means doing what you like. Well, you're wrong. That isn't true freedom. True freedom means doing what I tell you."

(The Ape in Its Glory)

When, Where

1. Trouble in Narnia, Chapters 1-4: three weeks

2. Hope from our World, Chapters 5-8: less than 48 hours

3. Utter Hopelessness on the Stable Hill, Chapters 9-12: one night

4. Farther Up and Further In, Chapters 13-15: timelessness

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The Last Battle

In the shadow of the trees on the far side of the clearing something was moving. It was gliding very slowly Northward. At first glance you might have mistaken it for smoke, for it was gray and you could see things through it. But the deathly smell was not the smell of smoke. Also, this thing kept its shape instead of billowing and curling as smoke would have done. It was roughly the shape of a man but it had the head of a bird; some bird of prey with a cruel, curved beak. It had four arms which it held high above its head, streching them northward as if it wanted to snatch all Narnia in its grip; and its fingers--all twenty of them--were curved like its beak and had long, pointed, bird-like claws instead of nails. It floated on the grass instead of walking, and the grass seemed to whither beneath it.

After one look at it Puzzle gave a screaming bray and darted into the Tower. And Jill (who was no coward, as you know) hid her face in her hands to shut out the sight of it. The others watched it for perhaps a minute, until it streamed away into the thicker trees on their right and disappeared. Then the sun came out again, and the birds once more began to sing.

Everyone started breathing properly again and moved. They had all been still as statues while it was in sight.

"What was it?" said Eustace in a whisper.

"I have seen it once before," said Tirian. "But that time it was carved in stone and overlaid with gold and had solid diamonds for eyes. It was when I was no older than thou, and had gone as a guest to The Tisroc's court in Tashbaan. He took me into the great temple of Tash. Then I saw it, carved abbove the altar."

"Then that--that thing--was Tash?" said Eustace.

But instead of answering him Tirian slipped his arm behind Jill's shoulders and said "How is it with you, Lady?"

"A-all right," said Jill, taking her hands away from her pale face and trying to smile. "I'm all right. It only made me feel a little sick for a moment."

"It seems, then," said the Unicorn, "that ther is a Tash, after all."

"Yes," said the Dwarf. "And this fool of an Ape, who didn't believe in Tash, will get more than he bargained for! He called for Tash: Tash has come."

"Where has it--he--the Thing--gone to?" said Jill.

"North into the heart of Narnia," said Tirian. "It has come to dwell among us. They have called it and it has come."

"Ho, ho, ho!" chuckled the Dwarf, rubbing his hairy hands together. "It will be a surprise for the Ape. People shouldn't call for demons unless they really mean what they say."

(What News the Eagle Brought)

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The Last Battle

"...And the other sight, five leagues nearer than Cair Paravel, was Roonwit the Centaur lying dead with a Calormene arrow in his hide. I was with him in his last hour and he gave me this message to your Majesty: to remember that all worlds draw to an end and that noble death is a treasure which no one is too poor to buy."

"So," said the King, after a long silence, "Narnia is no more."

(What News the Eagle Brought)

"I almost wish--no I don't, though," said Jill.

"What were you going to say?"

"I was going to say I wished we'd never come. But I don't, I don't, I don't. Even if we are killed. I'd rather be killed fighting for Narnia than grow old and stupid at home and perhaps go about in a bath-chair and then die in the end just the same."

(The Great Meeting on Stable Hill)

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The Last Battle

Tirian looked and saw the queerest and most ridiculous thing you can imagine. Only a few yards away, clear to be seen in the sunlight, there stood up a rough wooden door and, round it, the framework of the doorway: nothing else, no walls, no roof. He walked toward it, bewildred, and the others followed, watching to see what he would do. He walked round to the other side of the door. But it looked just the same from the other side: he was still in the open air, on a summer morning. The door was simply standing up by itself as if it had grown there like a tree.

"Fair Sir," said Tirian to the High King, "this is a great marvel."

"It is the door you came through with the Calormene five minutes ago," said Peter smiling.

"But did I not come in out of the wood into the stable? Whereas this seems to be a door leading from nowhere to nowhere."

"It looks like that if you walk round it," said Peter. "But put your eye to that place where ther is a crack between two of the planks and look through."

Tirian put his eye to the hole. At first he could see nothing but blackness. Then, as his eyes grew used to it, he saw the dull red glow of a bonfire that was nearly going out, and above that, in the black sky, stars. Then he could see dark figures moving about or standing between him and the fire: he could hear them talking and their voices were like those of Calormenes. So he knew that he was looking out through the stable door into the darkness of Lantern Waste where he had found his last battle. The men were discussing whether to go in and look for Rishda Tarkaan (but none of them wanted to do that) or set fire to the stable.

He looked around again and could hardly believe his eyes. There was the blue sky overhead, and grassy country spreading as far as he could see in every direction, and his new friends all round him laughing.

"It seems, then," said Tirian, smiling himself, "that the stable seen from within and the stable seen from without are two different places."

"Yes," said the Lord Digory. "Its inside is bigger than its outside."

(How The Dwarfs Refused To Be Taken In)

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The Last Battle

Aslan raised his head and shook his mane. Instantly a glorious feast appeared on the Dwarfs' knees: pies and tongues and pigeons and trifles and ices, and each Dwarf had a goblet of good wine in his right hand. But it wasn't much use. They began eating and drinking greedily enough, but it was clear that they couldn't taste it properly. They thought they were eating and drinking only the sort of things you might find in a stable. One said he was trying to eat hay and another said he got a bit of an old turnip and a third said he'd found a raw cabbage leaf. And they raised golden goblets of rich red wine to their lips and said "Ugh! Fancy drinking dirty water out of a trough that a donkey's been at! Never thought we'd come to this." But very soon every Dwarf began suspecting that every other Dwarf had found something nicer than he had, and they started grabbing and snatching, and went on to quarreling, till in a few minutes there was a free fight and all the good food was smeared on their faces and clothes or trodden under foot. But when at last they sat down to nurse their black eyes and their bleeding noses, they all said:

"Well, at any rate there's no Humbug here. We haven't let anyone take us in. The Dwarfs are for the Dwarfs."

"You see," said Aslan. "They will not let us help them. They have chosen cunning instead of belief. Their prison is only in their own minds yet they are in that prison; and so afraid of being taken in that they cannot be taken out."

(How The Dwarfs Refused To Be Taken In)

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The Last Battle

"So," said Peter, "night falls on Narnia. What, Lucy! You're not crying? With Aslan ahead, and all of us

here?"

"Don't try to stop me, Peter," said Lucy, "I am sure Aslan would not. I am sure it is not wrong to mourn

Narnia. Think of all that lies dead and frozen behind that door."

"Yes and I did hope," said Jil, "that it might go on forever. I knew our world couldn't. I did think Narnia might."

"I saw it begin," said the Lord Digory. "I did not think I would live to see it die."

"Sirs," said Tirian. "The ladies do well to weep. See, I do so myself. I have seen my mother's death. What world but Narnia have I ever known? It were no virtue, but great discourtesy, if we did not mourn.

(Night Falls on Narnia)

It is hard to explain how this sunlit land was different from the old Narnia as it would be to tell you how the fruits of that country taste. Perhaps you will get some idea of it if you think like this.You may have been in a room in which there was a window that looked out on a lovely bay of the sea or a green valley that wound away among mountains. And in the wall of that room opposite to the window there may have been a looking-glass. And as you turned away from the window you suddenly caught sight of that sea or that valley, all over again, in the looking- glass. And the sea in the mirror, or the valley in the mirror, were in one sense just the same as the real ones: yet at the same time they were somehow different--deeper, more wonderful, more like places in a story: in a story you have never heard but very much want to know. The difference between the old Narnia was like that. The new one was a deeper country: every rock and flower and blade of grass looked as if it meant more. I can't describe it any better than that: if you ever get there you will know what I mean.

It was the Unicorn who summed up what everyone was feeling. He stamped his right forehoof on the ground and neighed, and then cried:

"I have come home at last! This is my real country! I belong here. This is the land I have been looking for all my life, though I never knew it till now. The reason why we loved the old Narnia is that it sometimes looked a little like this. Bree-hee-hee! Come further up, come further in!"

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One of these days, we are going to be in the Father's house. That is the Christian's certain destiny. We are going to be together forever. We will see, in their redeemed bodies, our loved ones who have gone on before us. One day we are going to step into eternity, like Enoch did, and pass from this life to the next. Death, the thing that we dread so much, will be a mere transition. And the Lord will be there to greet us and gather us into the Father's house, where there is warmth and security and nothing to fear.

C. S. Lewis, in his final children's book, The Last Battle, describes it this way:

"There was a railway accident," said Aslan softly. "Your father and mother and all of you are--as you used to call it in the shadowlands--dead. The term is over; the holidays have begun. The dream is ended: this is the morning." And as he spoke he no longer looked to them like a lion; but the things that began to happen after that were so great and beautiful that I cannot write them. And for us this is the end of all the stories, and we can most truly say that they lived happily ever after. But for them it was only the beginning of the real story. All their life in this world and all their adventures in Narnia have only been the cover and the title page: now at last they were beginning Chapter one of the Great story which no one on earth has read: which goes on forever: in which every chapter is better than the one before.

That is why Paul says in 1 Thess 4:18:

"Therefore comfort one another with these words."

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Conclusion

It is the way Lewis thoroughly integrated his Christian faith into his scholarly work that leaves the largest legacy.

Lewis taught me... how to long for God and seek true joy.

How to integrate a Christian worldview with my vocation, my family life, and my inner self.

In all his writings, Lewis tried to point to Christ.

The impact of Lewis on my life has been great. He has challenged me to grow in my faith so that I’m not afraid to engage spiritually and intellectually with a world hostile to God. But above all he has taught me that the power of the imagination is one of the greatest tool we have to bridge the gap into the secular mind.