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Life on the Plains. A look at people!!. Warm-Up - 9/18/12. What was the Homestead Act ? Was life in the West better for African Americans?. WYMK. How did life on the plains change the social class structure in America? How did the Dawes Act affect Native Americans? European Americans?.

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life on the plains

Life on the Plains

A look at people!!

warm up 9 18 12
Warm-Up - 9/18/12
  • What was the Homestead Act?
  • Was life in the West better for African Americans?


  • How did life on the plains change the social class structure in America?
  • How did the Dawes Act affect Native Americans? European Americans?
life on the plains1
Life on the plains
  • Many found it very difficult
    • Lack of trees and water
    • Homes are built from sod
    • Summer temperatures over 100 degrees
    • Prairie fires are a constant danger
    • Crops destroyed by grasshoppers
    • Winter extremely cold and a harsh environment
native american culture
Native American Culture
  • What do you know about Early Native Americans?
    • How did they Live?
    • How did they survive
    • What was their culture?
  • tribe that has no permanent home but moves around seasonally following a source of food.
“it would be a great step forward in the civilization of the Indians and the preservation of peace on the border if there was not a buffalo in existence.”
    • Congressman James Throckmorton - Texas
warm up 9 19 12
Warm-Up - 9/19/12
  • Why was the Buffalo such a crucial part of Indian Culture?
  • What is Assimilation?


  • How did the Dawes Act affect Native Americans? European Americans?
  • Why were Native American Children sent to Boarding Schools in the East?
  • American plan to encourage Native Americans to be absorbed into American Society as landowners and citizens.

the dawes act 1887 the general allotment act
The Dawes Act, 1887 (The General Allotment Act)
  • Ended the Reservation System.
    • It broke up reservation lands
    • Each Native American family (headed by a man) an allotment of 160 acres.
    • U.S. citizenship

Henry Dawes – Republican Rep (Massachusetts)

the dawes act s problems
Native Americans were not farmers, they were hunters.

Native Americans lost about 90 million acres of treaty land

About 90,000 Indians made landless.

Whites were able to buy Indian Land



Video on Native Americans and the Reservation

2:25 MARK


  • NA children sent away to school to learn “American” ways.
  • NAs wanted to live away from the white society.
  • For NAs to be = Ws; had to give up language, religion, customs and leave other NAs.
boarding school brainwashing techniques
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques
  • Many boarding schools were far away from reservations so that students would have no contact with their families and friends
  • Parents were discouraged from visiting and, in most cases, students were not allowed to go home during the summer.
  • Indian boarding school students wore military uniforms and were forced to march.
boarding school brainwashing techniques cont
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques (cont.)
  • Students were forbidden to speak their native language.
  • Students were forbidden to practice their religion. They were forced to memorize Bible verses and the Lord’s Prayer.
  • Students were taught the Indian way of life was savage and inferior to the white way. They were taught that they were being civilized or "raised up" to a better way of life.
boarding school brainwashing techniques cont1
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques (cont.)
  • Indian students were told Indian people were stupid, dirty, and backwards.
  • Those who most quickly assimilated were called "good Indians." Those who didn’t were called "bad" Indians.
  • Students were shamed and humiliated for showing homesickness.
  • When they finally did go home, many boarding school students had a difficult time fitting in.
exit discussion
Exit Discussion
  • Why do you think some of Assimilation techniques did not work with Native Americans?
  • Compare the techniques used with Native Americans to those of African Americans?
warm up
  • “I will remain what I am until I die, a hunter, and when there are no buffalo or other game I will send my children to hunt and live on prairie mice, for where an Indian is shut up in one place his body becomes weak.”

- Quote by Sitting Bull on 3/23/1879

How does this quote by Sitting Bull represent the feelings of the Indians towards the Dawes Act and Westward Expansion. How do you think he plans to handle settlers encroaching on his peoples land??

what you need to know
What you need to know

1. Explain the method that Native Americans used to battle for equality in the United States.

ghost dance
Ghost Dance
  • Movement by prophet of peace Wovoka
  • Circular dance that promoted clean living
  • Contributed to Wounded Knee Massacre

group activity
Group Activity
  • Groups will have separate Native American Conflicts.
    • Who was involved
    • What happened
    • What was the result of the Conflict.

1.Sand Creek Massacre

2. Little Big Horn

3. Geronimo Campaigns

4. Wounded Knee

5. Flight of Nez Perce

native american wars
Native American Wars

1.Sand Creek Massacre

2. Little Big Horn

3. Geronimo Campaigns

4. Wounded Knee

5. Flight of Nez Perce

chief joseph and the nez perce tribe
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce Tribe

“Our Chiefs are killed….. The little children are freezing to death. My people…. Have no blankets, no food… Hear me chiefs; I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever”

exit question
Exit Question
  • "Whenever the white man treats the indian as they treat each other, then we will have no more wars. We shall all be alike--brothers of one father and one another, with one sky above us and one country around us, and one government for all.” – Chief Joseph, Nez Perce
  • Do the views of Chief Joseph resemble the thoughts of African American leader Booker T Washington or WEB Dubois. Explain?
the ghost dance
The Ghost Dance


The picture to the right is a Ghost Dance dress which Indians believed would keep white’s bullets from harming them. The great Sioux chief Sitting Bull strongly encouraged his people to practice the Ghost dance.

Why do you think this ritual alarmed the US government and the army?

warm up pg 27
Warm-up pg 27
  • How did the Homestead Act affect the Railroads?
  • WYMK: How did the new inventions affect the American standard of living?
standard of living
Standard of living
  • The ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants.
  • People with higher incomes usually have higher standards of living. (they can afford more stuff)
  • A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy Batteries are used to power many devices and make the spark that starts a gasoline engine.
  • Storage batteries are lead-based batteries that can be recharged created in 1859.
  • The dry cell is a an improved voltaic cell with a cylindrical zinc shell. The dry cell battery was developed in the 1870s-1870s with an electrolyte in the form of a paste.
  • Edison batteries (also called alkaline batteries) are an improved type of storage battery developed by Thomas Edison. Like the ones we use today.
blue jeans
Blue Jeans
  • Levi Strauss was an entrepreneur who invented and marketed blue jeans. Trained as a tailor, Strauss sold dry goods, including tents and linens to the 49ers. In 1873, Strauss used copper rivets at the stress points of sturdy work pants. Early levis, called "waist overalls," came in a brown canvas duck fabric and a heavy blue denim fabric.
cash register
Cash Register
  • The mechanical cash register was in 1879 by James Ritty; an American tavern keeper in Dayton, Ohio. He started the National Manufacturing Company to sell them. When a transaction was completed, a bell rang on the cash register and the amount was noted on a large dial on the front of the machine. During each sale, a paper tape was punched with holes so that the merchant could keep track of sales (at the end of the day, the merchant could add up the holes).
  • The National Cash Register Company was later called NCR, until the company was bought by ATT in 1991; it was given back the name NCR in 1996, when it was split off from ATT.
  • Celluloid is a plastic made from cellulose (it is derived from plants). This very flammable material was invented in 1869 by the American inventor John Wesley Hyatt (it was invented to be a substitute for the elephant ivory used for billiard balls). Celluloid was one the first plastics invented; it can be damaged by moisture.
elevator brake
Elevator Brake
  • Otis invented the elevator brake, which greatly improved the safety of elevators. He used a ratchet on a spring to catch the elevator in the event of an accident (like a broken cable).
  • In 1854, at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York, Otis demonstrated how safe his elevator was by cutting the elevator's cable with an ax, and the elevator car stayed where it was in the shaft.
  • Otis' invention spurred the development of skyscrapers, changing the look of cities around the world forever.
light bulb
Light Bulb
  • The first electric light was made in 1800 by Humphry Davy. When he connected wires to his battery and a piece of carbon, the carbon glowed, producing light. This is called an electric arc.
  • Much later, in 1860, Joseph Wilson Swan was determined to devise a practical, long-lasting electric light. He found that a carbon paper filament worked well, but burned up quickly.
  • In 1877, Charles Francis Brush manufactured some carbon arcs to light a public square in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. These arcs were used on a few streets, in a few large office buildings, and even some stores. Electric lights were only used by a few people.
  • Thomas Alva Edison experimented with thousands of different filaments to find just the right materials to glow well and be long-lasting. In 1879, Edison discovered that a carbon filament in an oxygen-free bulb glowed but did not burn up for 40 hours. Edison eventually produced a bulb that could glow for over 1500 hours.
  • In 1903, Willis R. Whitney invented a treatment for the filament so that it wouldn't darken the inside of the bulb as it glowed.
  • In 1910, William David Coolidge invented a tungsten filament which lasted even longer than the older filaments. The incandescent bulb revolutionized the world.
  • Louis Pasteur studied the process of fermentation, and guessed that fermentation was produced by microscopic organisms (other than yeast), which Pasteur called germs. He hypothesized that these germs might be responsible for some diseases. Applying his theories to foods and drinks, Pasteur invented a heating process (now called pasteurization) which sterilizes food, killing micro-organisms that contaminate it.
  • The radio was invented by Nikola Tesla. The radio was promoted and popularized by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. The first radio transmission across an ocean (the Atlantic Ocean) occurred on December 12, 1901.
  • The telephone (meaning "far sound") is the most widely used telecommunications device. It was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell (with Thomas Watson). His device transmitted speech sounds over electric wires, and his idea has remained one of the most useful inventions ever made.
  • In 1867 by the American printer and editor Christopher Latham Sholes. He made the prototype using the key of an old telegraph transmitter. There was no way of spacing the letters, no carriage return, and no shift keys; these features would be added to later models.
  • Their first commercial model was called the "Sholes & Glidden Type Writer," and was later called the Remington typewriter. It was produced by the gunmakers E. Remington & Sons in Ilion, NY, from 1874-1878. The first author to submit a typed book manuscript was Mark Twain. Sholes' typewriter was the beginning of a revolution in communication.
x rays
  • X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Konrad von Roentgen. Roentgen was a German physicist who described this new form of radiation that allowed him to photograph objects that were hidden behind opaque shields. He even photographed part of his own skeleton. X-rays were soon used as an important diagnostic tool in medicine. Roentgen called these waves "X-radiation" because so little was known about them.
bessemer process
Bessemer Process
  • industrial process for the manufacture of steel from molten iron
other interesting inventions
Other Interesting Inventions
  • Basketball 1892
  • Coke a Cola 1886
  • Dishwasher 1850
  • Electric Iron 1882
  • Fountain Pen 1884
  • Hot dogs 1860’s
  • Kindergarten 1860 (Germany)
  • Matches 1855
  • Pin-tumbler lock 1848
  • Potato Chips
  • Push pins and paper clips 1890
  • Rayon 1855
  • Toilet Paper 18
  • Tractor 1892
  • Vacuum 1899
  • Zipper 1893